A new checklist of lichenised, lichenicolous and allied fungi reported from South Africa

This checklist is based on the one published in the open-access, on-line journal Bothalia: African Biodiversity and Conservation http://www.abcjournal.org/index.php/ABC/article/view/148, which should be consulted for an introduction as to how the list was prepred and an explanation of the symbols used. I have taken the opportunity to correct some errors and ommissions in the original list (in blue) and further updates will be made periodically.

One major structural change has been made. Synonyms are now included (in italics) at the end of the genus in which they were described or combined; for example, Lecanora thaeodes and Placidium thaeodes, synonyms of Acarospora thaeodes, are now included at the end of Lecanora and Placidium respectively, not after Acarospora thaeodes.

To simplify the list, I have also removed all references to Doidge's 1950 checklist (Bothalia 5:1-1094: lichens pgs 225-376), which is available on-line at: http://www.cybertruffle.org.uk/cyberliber/16452/0005/index.htm). Any taxon for which a reference is not included is known only from the reports in Doidge (1950). Consequently, the most reliable records are those with recent references, and records in genera with few recent references (e.g., Acarospora) should be treated with extreme caution.

This list is only the start of the process of producing an up-to-date checklist of the lichen taxa occurring in South Africa. Many records are based on Doidge (1950), which incorporated reports going back to the 19th (and even 18th) century that were identified by European workers who gave them names of Northern Hemisphere taxa that are now known not to occur in South Africa (e.g., Pectenia (Degelia) plumbea). As with the published list, please send me any corrections, additons or other comments, which will be incorporated into future versions.

Alan Fryday – October 2015



dialeucoides Kalb & Staiger                                                                          Kalb et al. 2009


ACAROSPORA A. Massal. (1852)

bella (Nyl.) Jatta                                                                                              

bylii H. Magn.                                                                                                    

calviniensis H. Magn.                                                                                     

capensis Zahlbr.                                                                                               

cervina A. Massal.                                                                                           

deserticola Zahlbr.                                                                                          

insculpta H. Magn.                                                                                          

intrusa H. Magn.                                                                                              

laevigata H. Magn.                                                                                          

longispora H. Magn.                                                                                       

lucida H. Magn.                                                                                                

luederitzensis H. Magn.                                                                               

macrospora (Hepp) Bagl.                                                                             

meridionalis H. Magn.                                                                                   

negligens H. Magn.                                                                                        

ochrophaea H. Magn.                                                                                   

porinoides (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                      

schleicheri (Ach.) A. Massal.                                                                        Almborn 1988b

socialis H. Magn.                                                                                              

subbadia H. Magn.                                                                                         

subochracea H. Magn.                                                                                  

subtersa H. Magn.                                                                                          

tenuis (Vain.) H. Magn.                                                                                

thaeodes A. Massal.                                                                                      



sphaerophoroides Lév.                                                                                 Brusse 1989c


ACTINOPLACA Müll. Arg. 1891

strigulacea Müll. Arg. = Echinoplaca strigulacea



albostrigosus (R. Sant.) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda                                 Brusse 1988e


ALLARTHOTHELIUM (Vain.) Zahlbr. (1908)

minimum Vain.                                                                                                


ALMBORNIA Essl. 1981

azaniensis Brusse = Xanthoparmelia azaniensis

cafferensis Essl. = Xanthoparmelia ovealmbornii


AMANDINEA M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer (1993)

brugierae (Vain.) Marbach                                                                           Marbach 2000

natalensis (Vain.) Marbach                                                                          Marbach 2000

punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid.                                                      Almborn 1960, Almborn 1988b

xylographella (Nyl.) Marbach                                                                      Marbach 2000


ANAPTYCHIA Körb. (1848)

ciliaris Ach.                                                                                                          Galloway 1995

corallophora (Taylor) Vain.                                                                          

granulifera A. Massal.                                                                                   

obesa Zahlbr.                                                                                                    

palpebrata Vain.

hypoleuca A. Massal. = Heterodermia hypoleuca

hypoleuca var. colorata Zahlbr. = Heterodermia hypoleuca

leucomelaena (L.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia leucomela

leucomelaena var. angustifolia (Meyen & Flot.) Müll. Arg. = Heterodermia boryi

obesa f. caesiocrocata Zahlbr. = A. obesa

podocarpa (Bél.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia podocarpa

speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal. = Heterodermia speciosa

speciosa var. esorediata Vain. = Heterodermia speciosa

speciosa f. sorediosa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Heterodermia speciosa


ANISOMERIDIUM (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy

uniseriale (Zahlbr.) R.C. Harris = Pleurotrema uniseriale


ANTHRACOTHECIUM Hampe ex A. Massal. (1860)

biferum Zahlbr.                                                                                                

duplicans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.                                                                           

thwaitesii (Leight.) Müll. Arg.                                                                     

variolosum (Pers.) Müll. Arg.                                                                     

pyrenuloides (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula pyrenuloides


ARCTOMIA Th. Fr. (1860)

muscicola A. L. Sm.                                                                                         



centrifuga (L.) Hale                                                                                         


ARTHONIA Ach. (1806)

angulata Fée                                                                                                     

angulosa Müll Arg.                                                                                          

*anjutii S.Y. Kondr. & Alstrup                                                                      Kondratyuk 1996

atra (Pers.) A. Schneid.                                                                                  Galloway 1995

brussei Egea & Torrente                                                                               Egea & Torrente 1996, Egea & Torrente 1997

calospora Müll Arg.                                                                                        

cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr.                                                                                

circumscissa G. Merr.                                                                                    

hormidiella Stirt.                                                                                              

lecideicarpa Zahlbr.                                                                                        

mira R. Sant.                                                                                                       Brusse 1988e, Farkas, 2004

nana Stizenb.                                                                                                    

oblongula Müll. Arg.                                                                                      

palmicola Ach.                                                                                                  

polymorpha Ach.                                                                                            

propinqua Nyl.                                                                                                 

pyrenuloides Müll. Arg.                                                                                

rubrofuscescens Vain.                                                                                  

*sytnikii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt                                                               Kondratyuk 2002

trilocularis Müll. Arg.                                                                                       Brusse 1988e

variabilis Müll. Arg.                                                                                         

albida (Müll. Arg.) Willey = Arthothelium albidum

capensis Egea & Torrente non Stizenb. = A. brussei

consanguinea (Müll. Arg.) Willey = Arthothelium consanguneum

obvelata (Müll. Arg.) Willey = Arthothelium obvelatum

wilmsiana Müll. Arg. = Coniarthonia wilmsiana


ARTHOPYRENIA A. Massal. (1852)

alboatra (Kremp.) Müll. Arg.                                                                      

analepta (Ach.) A. Massal.                                                                          

capensis Zahlbr.                                                                                               

cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg.                                                                        

knysnana Zahlbr.                                                                                             

leucanthes Zahlbr.                                                                                          

norata A. Massal.                                                                                            

paraphysata Zahlbr.                                                                                       

pruinosogrisea (C. Knight) Müll. Arg.                                                      

recepta Müll. Arg.                                                                                           

simulans Müll. Arg.                                                                                         

fallax (Nyl.) Arnold = A. analepta

cinchonae var. fumida (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. = A. cinchonae


ARTHOTHELIUM A. Massal. (1852)

abnorme (Ach.) Müll. Arg.                                                                          

albidum Müll. Arg.                                                                                          

album Zahlbr.                                                                                                   

argenteum (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                     

consanguineum Müll. Arg.                                                                          

fusconigrum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.                                                                     

melanopsis (Stirt.) Zahlbr.                                                                           

michylum Vain.                                                                                                

obvelatum Müll. Arg.                                                                                    

phaeosporum Zahlbr.                                                                                   

psyllodes Zahlbr.                                                                                             

violascens (Flot.) Zahlbr.                                                                              

psyllodes var. precursum Zahlbr. = Arthothelium psyllodes



citrinella (Ach.) Poelt                                                                                      Brusse 1988e


ASPICILIA A. Massal. (1852)

cinerea (L.) Körb.                                                                                            

subdepressa (Nyl.) Arnold                                                                          

atrorimata (Nyl.) C.W. Dodge =Lecanora atrorimata

breuteliana (A. Massal.) C.W. Dodge = Lecanora breuteliana

bylii (Vain.) C.W. Dodge = Lecanora bylii

chondroplaca (Zahlbr.) C.W. Dodge = Lecanora chondroplaca

diffusilis (Nyl.) C.W. Dodge = Lecanora diffusilis

homaloplaca (Nyl.) C.W. Dodge = Lecanora prosecha

nubila (Stizenb.) Hue = Lecanora nubila


ASTEROTHYRIUM Müll. Arg. (1890)

rotuliforme (Müll. Arg.) Sérus. & J.R. De Sloover                                Brusse 1988e


AULAXINA Fée (1825

dictyospora R. Sant.                                                                                        Brusse 1988e

quadrangula (Stirt.) R. Sant.                                                                        Brusse 1988e, Farkas, 2004


AUSTROPARMELIELLA (P.M. Jørg.) P.M. Jørg. 2014

lacerata (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg.                                           Ekman et al. 2014


BACIDIA De Not. (1846)                                                                                

aemula (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                            

amylothelia Vain.                                                                                            

beckhausii (Stizenb.) Körb.                                                                         

capreolina (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                      

caruncula (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                        

chlorophaeata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                      

cyrtocheila (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                     

effusa (Sm.) Trevis.                                                                                        

endoleucella (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                 

epicyanea Vain.                                                                                               

friesiana (Hepp) Anzi                                                                                     

heteroloma (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                         

inconsequens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                       

inconveniens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                         

intermedia Hampe ex A. Massal.                                                             

laurocerasi (Delise ex Duby) Zahlbr.                                                        

leucostephana (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                             

medialis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.                                                                                

millegrana (Taylor) Zahlbr.                                                                          

polychroa (Th. Fr.) Körb.                                                                              

proposita (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                                

rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal.                                                                         

rufata (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                               

stupposa (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.                                                                    

subluteola (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                              

subspadicea (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.                                                               

trifaria (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                              

apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Bacidina apiahica

beckhausii var. stenospora f. acutata Zahlbr. = B. beckhausii

effusa var. intermedia Zahlbr. = B. effusa

friesiana var. norrlinii Vain. = B. friesiana

heteroloma f. firmior (not in Index Fungorum) = B. heteroloma

endoleuca (Nyl.) Kickx. = B. laurocerasi

fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Bausch = B. polychroa

lugubris (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = Ropalospora lugubris

luteola (Ach.) Mudd. = B. rubella

luteola f. chlorotica Zahlbr. = B. rubella

luteola f. conspondens Zahlbr. = B. rubella

sabuletorum (Schreb.) Lettau = Bilimbia sabuletorum


BACIDINA Vězda (1991)

apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Vězda                                                                          Brusse 1991b, Farkas 2004

pallidocarnea (Müll. Arg.) Vězda                                                               Brusse 1991c, Farkas 2004


BACULIFERA Marbach & Kalb (2000)

cinereocincta Müll. Arg.                                                                                Marbach 2000

micromera (Vain.) Marbach                                                                        Marbach 2000


BAEOMYCES Pers. 1794

roseus Pers. (reported as Baeomyces rasens Pers. by Thomas & Bhat 1996) = Dibaeis baeomyce


BIATORA Fr. (1817)

vernalis (L.) Fr.


BIATORELLA De Not. (1846)                                                                        

armstrongiae (T.A. Jones) Zahlbr.                                                            

clavulus (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                           

lugens (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                              

palmeti (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                            

robiginans (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                      


BILIMBIA De Not. (1846)

sabuletorum (Schreb.) Arnold                                                                   


BLASTENIA A. Massal. (1852)                                                                     

acaciae (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                                   

aspicilioidea Zahlbr.                                                                                        

brunnthaleri Zahlbr.                                                                                       

imponens (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                       

laingsburgensis Zahlbr.                                                                                 

ochracea (Schaer.) Trevis.

(Xanthocarpia ochracea (Schaer.) A. Massal. & De Not.)

praemicans (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                            

psorothecioides (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                 

punicae (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                                 

sedutrix (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                           

subsalicina Zahlbr.                                                                                          

testaceorufa (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                       

vasquesia A. Massal.                                                                                     

ochracea var. parvula (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. = Blastenia ochracea



aureola (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia aureola

domingensis (Pers.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia domingensis

domingensis var. colorata Vain. = Letrouitia domingensis

domingensis var. flavocrocea Zahlbr. = Letrouitia domingensis

domingensis var. glaucotropa Vain. = Letrouitia domingensis

domingensis var. inexplicata Malme = Letrouitia domingensis

domingensis var. inspersa J. Steiner = Letrouitia domingensis

flavidula (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia flavidula

ncana A.L.Sm. = Megalospora tuberculosa

tuberculosa (Fée) A. Massal. = Megalospora tuberculosa

tuberculosa f. geotropa (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. = Megalospora tuberculosa

zuluensis Vain. = Megalospora tuberculosa



fuscolutea (Dicks.) R. Sant.                                                                         

leucoxantha (Spreng.) R. Sant.                                                                  

mariae Trevis.                                                                                                   


BRYORIA Brodo & D. Hawksw. (1977)

fuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw.                                            Kärnefelt 1987b


BULLATINA Vězda & Poelt (1987)

viridis Brusse                                                                                                      Brusse 1992, Farkas 2004

microcarpa (Vězda) Brusse = Gyalectidium microcarpum


BUELLIA De Not. (1846)                                                                                

aethalea (Ach.) Th. Fr.                                                                                  

aethaloessa (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                   

africana (Tuck.) Tuck.                                                                                    

albula Müll. Arg.                                                                                              

ambuta (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                            

anatolodia A. Massal.                                                                                    

aequata (Ach.) Szatala                                                                                  

brunnthaleri Zahlbr.                                                                                       

callaina (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                             

callisporina C.W. Dodge                                                                                

cangoensis Vain.                                                                                             

coeruleata (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                      

contingens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                             

dialytella Vain.                                                                                                  

diorista (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                                     

disciformis (Fr.) Mudd.                                                                                 

discolorans Zahlbr. (nom illegit.)                                                               

dispersa A. Massal.                                                                                        

distrahens Vain.                                                                                              

distrata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                                    

durbana Vain.                                                                                                   

endorhodina Vain.                                                                                         

epichlora (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                               

glenncairnensis Zahlbr.                                                                                 

halonia (Ach.) Tuck.                                                                                       

incuriosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                                  

insidians (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                                  

italica A. Massal.                                                                                              

langbaanensis Vain.                                                                                       

lauricassiae (Fée) Müll. Arg.                                                                       

leucina Müll. Arg.                                                                                            

lutata (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                                

meizocarpa Vain.                                                                                            

melanthina (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                    

microsperma Müll. Arg.                                                                                

nesiotis (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                            

ocoteae Vain.                                                                                                   

oleicola (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                                    

pachnodes (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                     

pachysporoides Vain.                                                                                    

perigrapta (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                      

permodica (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                      

perspersa J. Steiner                                                                                       

praelata (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                           

protothallina (Kremp.) Vain. nom. Illegit.                                             

quaterna Zahlbr.                                                                                             

romoletia A. Nordin                                                                                        Nordin 2000

rudis (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                                 

rusticorum (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                     

sequax (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                                     

spuria (Schaer.) Anzi                                                                                      

stellulata (Taylor) Mudd.                                                                             

stizenbergeri Zahlbr.                                                                                     

subdisciformis Vain.                                                                                       

transvaalica (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                    

triplicans Zahlbr.                                                                                              

vernicoma (Tuck.) Tuck.                                                                               

abstracta Oliv. = B. sequax

aggrediens (Stirt.) Zahlbr. = Cratiria aggrediens

alboatra (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = Diplotomma alboatrum

ambusta Zahlbr. = B. ambuta

angulosa J. Steiner, non B. de Lesd. = B. brunnthaleri

brugierae Vain. = Amandinea brugierae

callispora (C. Knight) J. Steiner = Hafellia demutans

callispora var. tetrapla (Nyl.) J. Steiner = Hafellia tetrapela

callisporoides Vain. (nom illegit.) = B. callisporina

cinereocincta Müll. Arg. =Baculifera cinereocincta

debanensis (Bagl.) C.W. Dodge) = B. italica

demutans Zahlbr. = Hafellia demutans

disciformis var. cinereopruinosa Vain. = B. disciformis

disciformis var. lecanactina Steiner = B. disciformis

disciformis var. sanguinea (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = B. disciformis

dissa (Stirt.) Zahlbr. = Hafellia dissa

italica var. debanensis Bagl. = B. italica

italica var. recobarina A. Massal. = B. italica

lauricassiae var. macrosperma Zahlbr. = B. lauricassiae

lecanactina (J. Steiner) C.W. Dodge = B. disciformis

micromera Vain. = Baculifera micromera

natalensis Vain. = Amandinea natalensis

procellarum A. Massal. = Hafellia procellarum

procellarum var. continuior J. Steiner = Hafellia procellarum

procellarum var. repens J. Steiner = Hafellia procellarum

protothallina var. indissimilis Vain. = B. protothallina

punctata var. aequata (Ach.) Zahlbr. = B. aequata

punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. (inc. f. marcidula Zahlbr., f. punctiformis Hazsl.) = Amandinea punctata

recobarina (A. Massal.) Müll. Arg. = B. italica

spuria var. insularis (A. Massal.) Jatta = B. spuria

stellulata f. albosparsa Zahlbr. = B. stellulata

stellulata f. hybrida Zahlbr. = B. stellulata

stellulata f. murina Zahlbr. = B. stellulata

subcinerascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Lecanora subcinerascens

subtristis (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Rinodina subtristis

tetrapla (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Hafellia tetrapela

verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd = B. aethalea

viridiatra (Wulfen) H. Olivier = Rhizocarpon viridiatrum


BULBOTHRIX Hale (1974)

coronata (Fée) Hale                                                                                        Hale 1976b, Swinscow & Krog 1988

decurtata (Kurok.) Hale                                                                                 Hale 1976b

goebelii (Zenker) Hale                                                                                   Hale 1976b

isidiza (Nyl.) Hale                                                                                              Hale 1976b

sensibilis (J. Steiner & Zahlbr.) Hale                                                          Brusse 1988e, Hale 1976b

suffixa (Stirt.) Hale                                                                                          Hale 1976b, Swinscow & Krog 1988

tabacina (Mont. & Bosch) Hale                                                                   Hale 1976b

ventricosa (Hale & Kurok.) Hale                                                                 Hale 1976b, Swinscow & Krog 1988


BUNODOPHORON A. Massal. (1861)

melanocarpum (Sw.) Wedin                                                                      



fumosonigricans R. Sant. = Gonolecania fumosonigricans


BYSSOLOMA Trevis. (1853)                                                                         

leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain.                                                                       Santesson 1952, Farkas 2004

subdiscordans (Nyl.) P. James                                                                    Brusse 1988e

tricholomum (Mont.) Zahlbr.                                                                     

rotuliforme (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. = B. subdiscordans

tricholomum f. confluens Vain. = B. tricholomum


CALENIA Müll. Arg. 1890

nonospora Vězda = Bulletina viridis


CALOPLACA Th. Fr. (1860)

almbornii Kärnefelt                                                                                         Kärnefelt 1987a, Kärnefelt 1988, Almborn 1988a

amphidoxa (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

arenaria (Pers.) Müll. Arg.

(Rufoplaca arenaria (Pers.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén)

bonae-spei Almb. & Poelt                                                                            Almborn 1988a, Kärnefelt 1988

(Teloschistopsis bonae-spei (Almb. & Poelt) Frödén, Arup & Søchting)

calviniana Zahlbr.                                                                                            

capensis (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.                                                                      

cardinalis Zahlbr.                                                                                             

cataschista Zahlbr.                                                                                          

cateileoides (Vain.) Plümper & Lumbsch                                              

cerina (Ach.) Th. Fr.                                                                                        

cinnabarina (Ach.) Zahlbr.                                                                            Almborn 1988a, Kärnefelt 1988

cinnabariza (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                             

coccinella (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                        

conchiliata Zahlbr.                                                                                           

crocodes (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.                                                                     

delectans Zahlbr.                                                                                            

discolorella Zahlbr.                                                                                         

ecklonii (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.                                                                        

effusa G. Merr.                                                                                                

fecunda Zahlbr.                                                                                               

ferruginea (Huds.) Th. Fr.                                                                            

(Blastenia ferruginea (Huds.) A. Massal.)

ferrogineovirens (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                               

flavovirescens Dalla Torre & Sarnth.                                                       

gracilescens Zahlbr.                                                                                        

granulosa Jatta                                                                                                 

gyalectoides S.Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt                                                       Kärnefelt et al. 2002b

haematodes (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.                                                              Almborn 1960, Kärnefelt 1988

hampeana (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.                                                                 

holocarpa (Hoffm.) A.E. Wade                                                                  

isidiosa (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                                    Kärnefelt 1988

leptopisma (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                             

massula Zahlbr.                                                                                                

mastophora (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                         

neethlingii Zahlbr.                                                                                           

ochraceofulva (Müll. Arg.) Jatta                                                                 Almborn 1987, Kärnefelt 1988

odoardii (Bagl.) Zahlbr.                                                                                 

pallidior (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.                                                                        

perexigua (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                             

phlogina Flagey                                                                                                

(Polycauliona phlogina (Ach.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting)

placidia J. Steiner                                                                                            

platyna Zahlbr.                                                                                                 

pyropoecila (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                            

pyropoeciloides Zahlbr.                                                                                

regalis (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                                    

(Gondwania regalis (Vain.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup)

saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin                                                                              

scoriophila (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.                                                                 

(Usnochroma scoriophila (A. Massal.) Søchting, Arup & Frödén)

sophodes (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                             

subcerina (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                                

sublobulata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                             Almborn 1960, Almborn 1988b, Kärnefelt 1988                           

subseptata Zahlbr.                                                                                         

subsoluta (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                                

(Squamulea subsoluta (Nyl.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén)

subunicolor (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                             Kärnefelt 1988

sympageella (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                        

teicophila (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.                                                                   

aurantiaca (Lightf.)Th. Fr. (inc. f. fulva Zahlbr.) = C. ferriginea

carphinea var. scoriophila (A. Massal.) J. Steiner. = C. scoriophila

cinnabarina var. opaca (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = C. cinnabarina

elegans (Link) Th. Fr. = Xanthora elegans

ferruginea f. erysibe Jatta = C. ferriginea

lamprocheila Flagey. = C. arenaria

murorum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = C. saxicola

pallidior f. opaca (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = C. cinnabarina

pyracea f. subpicta Zahlbr. ("on rock") = C. holocarpa

regalis f. prostrata (Hue) Zahlbr. = C. regalis

subnitida (Malme) Zahlbr. = C. ochraceofulva

tegularis (Ehrh.) Sandst. = Xanthora elegans

verruculifera (Vain.) Zahlbr = ? C. granulosa


CALOPADIA Vězda (1986)                                                                            

fusca (Müll. Arg.) Vězda                                                                                Brusse 1988e

puiggarii (Müll. Arg.) Vězda                                                                         Brusse 1988e

subcoerulescens (Zahlbr.) Vězda                                                              Farkas, 2004


CANDELARIA A. Massal. (1852)

conclor (Dicks.) Arnold                                                                                   (Almborn 1966, 1988b

Candelaria concolor f. phaeocarpa Almb. = C. conclor

Candelaria fibrosa (Fr.) Müll. Arg. = C. conclor (SA records)


CANDELARIELLA Müll. Arg. (1894)                                                            

coralliza (Nyl.) H. Magn.                                                                                Brusse 1988e

elaeophaea (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                            

glaucolivescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                    

vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg.                                                                        

vitellina f. athallina (Wedd.) Zahlbr. = C. vitellina


CANOMACULINA Elix & Hale (1987)

pilosa (Stizenb.) Elix & Hale                                                                          Hale 1976c, Swinscow & Krog 1988, Thomas & Bhat 1996

subcaperata (Kremp.) Elix                                                                            Hale 1974, Elix 1999a

uruguensis (Kremp.) Elix


CANOPARMELIA Elix & Hale (1986)

antedeluvialis (Brusse & Sipman) Elix                                                      Brusse 1993, Elix 1997

aptata (Kremp.) Elix & Hale                                                                          Hale 1976a

crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Elix & Hale                                      Hale 1976a

nairobiensis (J. Steiner & Zahlbr.) Elix & Hale                                      

owariensis (Asahina ) Elix                                                                             Elix 1993, Nash & Elix 1987

pustulescens (Kurok.) Elix                                                                            Hale 1976a

raunkiaeri (Vain.) Elix & Hale                                                                       Nash & Elix 1987

rodriguesiana (Hue) Elix                                                                                Elix 1999a, Hale 1976a

terrapapia Elix                                                                                                   Elix 1999a

texana (Tuck.) Hale                                                                                         Hale 1976a

zambiensis (Hale) Elix & Hale                                                                      Nash & Elix 1987

zimbabwensis (Hale) Elix & Hale                                                                Hale 1972, Swinscow & Krog 1988


CARBONEA (Hertel) Hertel (1983)

vorticosa (Flörke) Hertel                                                                              

oreinoides (Körb.) Brusse = Lecanora oreinoides



acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) J.W. Thomson = Placidium acarosporoides

kaernefeltii (Breuss) Breuss = Placidium kaernefeltii

squamullosum (Ach.) Bruess = Placidium squamulosum

tenellum Breuss = Placidium tenellum



mira Brusse                                                                                                        Brusse 1994

splendida Brusse                                                                                              Brusse 1994


CATILLARIA A. Massal. (1852)

chalybeia (Borrer) A. Massal.                                                                      Almborn 1960

crystallifera H. Kilias                                                                                        Kilias 1984

golubkovae Kotlov                                                                                          Kotlov 2002

lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr.                                                                              

melampepla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.                                                                        

mollescens Zahlbr.                                                                                         

mortualis (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                        

nigroclavata (Nyl.) J. Steiner                                                                       

opacata (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                           

rhyparoleuca A. Massal.                                                                               

stictella (Stirt.) Zahlbr.                                                                                   

subfuscata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                              

bouteillei (Desm.) A. Zahlbr. = Fellhanera bouteillei

intermixta (Nyl.) Arnold = Megalaria intermixta

intermixta f. cyanocentra Zahlbr. = Megalaria intermixta

lenticularis f. chloropoliza Boist. = C. lenticularis

schumannii var. meridionalis Cl. Roux & Vězda = Micarea melanidea


CETRARIA Ach. (1803)

aculeata (Schreb.) Fr.                                                                                    

chlorophylla (Willd.) Poetsch = Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla


CETRELIA W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. (1968)

cetrarioides (Duby) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.                                        

olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb & C. F. Culb.                                              


CHAPSA A. Massal.)

diploschistoides (Zahlbr.) Frisch                                                                


CHIODECTON Ach. (1814)

colensoi (A. Massal.) Müll. Arg.                                                                 

galactinum Zahlbr.                                                                                          

natalense Nyl.                                                                                                  

vanderbylii Zahlbr.                                                                                          

capense (A. Massal) Zahlbr. = C. colensoi

sanguineum f. roseocincta (Fr.) Vain. = C. natalensis

sanguineum f. rosaceotinctum (Fr.) Vain. = C. natalensis

venosum (Pers.) Zahlbr. =  Enterographa crassa


CHROODISCUS (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg. (1890)

mirificus (Krempelh.) R. Sant.                                                                     Brusse 1991b

verrucosus R. Sant., Lücking & Vězda                                                      Farkas, 2004


CHRYSOTHRIX Mont. (1852)

candelaris (L.) J. R. Laundon                                                                       


CLADIA Nyl. (1870)

aggregata (Sw.) Nyl.

polia (R. Sant.) W.A. Weber = Cladonia polia


CLADONIA P. Browne (1756)                                                                      

bacillaris (Ach.) Genth                                                                                   

borbonica Nyl.                                                                                                   Abbayes 1964, Ahti & Aptroot 1992

caespiticia (Pers.) Flörke                                                                              

centrophora Müll Arg.                                                                                   Swinscow & Krog 1988

chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Spreng.                                         

confusa R. Sant.                                                                                                Almborn 1987

coniocraea (Flörke) Spreng.                                                                       

didyma (Fée) Vain.                                                                                          Stenroos 1994

fimbriata (L.) Fr.                                                                                               

floerkeana (Fr.) Sommerf.                                                                           Stenroos 1994

furcata (Huds.) Schrad.                                                                                 

fuscocinerea Ahti                                                                                             Brusse 1988e

hedbergii Ahti                                                                                                   Brusse 1988e

macilenta Hoffm.                                                                                             Stenroos 1994

ochrochlora Flörke                                                                                         

poeciloclada f. brachiata Abbayes                                                             Abbayes 1964

pertricosa Kremp.                                                                                           

pocillum (Ach.) Grognot                                                                               

pyxidata (L.) Fr.                                                                                                

ramulosa (With.) J.R. Laundon                                                                  

rei Schaer                                                                                                           

squamosa (Scop.) Hoffm.                                                                            

subpungens Abbayes                                                                                    Abbayes 1964. Ahti 1993

subradiata (Vain.) Sandst.                                                                           

subulata (L.) F.H. Wigg.                                                                                 

verticillata Hoffm.

aggregata (Sw.) Spreng. = Cladia aggregata

cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti = C. verticillata

didyma var. muscigena (Eschw.) Vain. = C. didyma

didyma f. subulata Sandst. = C. didyma

fimbriata var. balfourii (Cromb.) Vain. = C. subradiata

fimbriata var. chondroidea Vain. = C. fimbriata

fimbriata var. chlorophaeoides Vain. = C. fimbriata

fimbriata var. coniocrea (Flörke) Vain. = C. coniocraea

fimbriata var. nemoxyna (Ach.) Coem. = C. rei

fimbriata var. nemoxyna f. fibula (Ach.) Vain. = C. rei

fimbriata var. ochrochlora (Flörke) Vain. = C. ochrochlora

fimbriata var. radiata (Schreb.) Coem. = C. subulata

fimbriata var. simplex (Weiss.) Flot. = C. fimbriata

fimbriata var. subradiata Vain. = C. subradiata

fimbriata var. subulata (L.) Vain. = C. subulata

flabelliformis Vain.= C. polydactyla, but misapplied name

flabelliformis f. tenella Zahlbr. = C. flabelliformis

leptoclada Abbayes = C. confusa

macilenta var. corticata Vain. = C. macilenta

multiformis G. Merr. = misapplied name (North American species)

multiformis f. subascypha (Vain.) Evans = C. multiformis

pertricosa Kremp. = C. subpugens

pityrea (Flörke) Fr. = C. ramulosa

pityrea var. subareolata Vain. = C. ramulosa

pityrea var. zwackhii Vain. f. scyphifera (Del.) Vain. = C. ramulosa

poeciloclada Abbayes = C. borbonica (Ahti & Aptroot 1992)

polia R. Sant. = C. confusa

portentosa (Dufor) Coem. = C. confusa

pycnoclada (Pers.) Nyl. = C. confusa

pycnoclada f. exalbescens Vain. = C. pycnoclada

pyxidata var. ophaea f. staphylea (Ach.) Harm. = C. chlorophaea

pyxidata var. pocillum (Ach.) Flot. = C. pocillum

rangiferina (L.) F.H. Wigg. = probably C. confusa

rangiformis Hoffm. = C. subpungens

rangiformis var. foliosa Flörke = C. rangiformis

rangiformis var. pungens (Ach.) Vain. = C. pertricosa

sylvatica = ?C. confusa

verticillata Hoffm. = C. cervicornis subsp. verticillata


CLATHROPORINA Müll. Arg. (1882)                                                         

locuples (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                           



flavum (Zahlbr.) Buesse                                                                                Brusse 1993


COCCOCARPIA Pers. (1827)

palmicola (Sprengel) Arv. & D.J. Galloway                                             Arvidsson 1982, Brusse 1988e

pellita (Ach.) Müll Arg.                                                                                  

pellita var. parmelioides Müll. Arg. = C. pellita



epiphorellum (Nyl.) Kärnefelt = Coelopogon epiphorellus


COELOPOGON Brusse & Kärnefelt (1991)

abraxas Brusse                                                                                                  Brusse & Kärnefelt 1991

epiphorellus (Nyl.) Brusse & Kärnefelt                                                   Kärnefelt 1986, Almborn 1988b, Brusse & Kärnefelt 1991


COENOGONIUM Ehrenb. (1820)

afrum A. Massal.                                                                                             

flavicans (Vězda & Farkas) Kalb & Lücking                                             Farkas, 2004

interplexum Nyl.                                                                                             

luteum (Dicks.) Kalb & Lücking                                                                   Brusse 1991c

moniliforme Tuck.                                                                                           Brusse 1988e

subluteum (Rehm) Kalb & Lücking                                                            Brusse 1991b


COLLEMA P. Browne (1756)

almbornii Degel.                                                                                               Degelius 1974

(Paracollema almbornii (Degel.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin)

coccophorum Tuck.                                                                                         Schultz et al. 2009

(Enchylium coccophorum (Tuck.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin)

crispum (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg.                                                             

(Blennothallia crispa (L.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin)        

fasciculare (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg.                                                         Degelius 1974

(Arctomia fascicularis (L.)  Otálora & Wedin, Gabura fasciculare (L.) P. M. Jørg.)

furfuraceum (Arnold) Du Rietz                                                                   Degelius 1974

hueanum Degel. var. hueanum                                                                 Degelius 1974, Moberg 1987

japonicum (Müll Arg.) Hue                                                                           Degelius 1974

kauaiense H. Magn.                                                                                        Degelius 1974

(Scytinium kauaiense (H. Magn.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin)

leptaleum Tuck.                                                                                                Degelius 1974

nigrescens (Huds.) DC.                                                                                 

polycarpon Hoffm.                                                                                          Degelius 1974

(Enchylium polycarpon (Hoffm.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin)

redundans Nyl.                                                                                                

subconveniens Nyl.                                                                                        Galloway 1995

subflaccidum Degel.                                                                                       Degelius 1974

tenax (Sw.) Ach.                                                                                               Degelius 1974

(Enchylium tenax (Sw.) Gray)

texanum Degel.                                                                                                Zedda & Rambold 2004

thysaneum Ach.                                                                                              

aggregatum (Ach.) Röhl = C. fasciculare

furfuraceum var. luzonense Degel. = C. furfuraceum

leptaleum var. bilosum (Mont.) Degel. - C. leptaleum


COMBEA De Not. (1846)

mollusca (Ach.) Nyl.                                                                                        Almborn 1988a, Almborn 1988b, Follmann et al. 1994              


CONOTREMA Tuck. (1848)

volvarioides (Fée) Müll. Arg.                                                                      



wilmsiana (Müll. Arg.) Grube                                                                     


CORNICULARIA (Schreb.) Hoffm.

epiphorella (Nyl.) Kärnefelt = Coelopogon epiphorellus

tenuissima (L.) Zahlbr. =  Cetraria aculeata


CORYNECYSTIS Brusse (1985)

capensis Brusse                                                                                                Brusse 1985a, Büdel 1987


CRATIRIA Marbach (2000)

aggrediens (Stirt.) Marbach                                                                         Marbach 2000


CRUTARNDINA Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch (2012)

petractoides (P.M. Jørg. & Brodo) Parnmen,                                       Brusse

Lücking & Lumbsch 1988e


CRYPTOTHECIA Stirt. (1876)

subnidulans Stirt.                                                                                            


CULBERSONIA Essl. (2000)

nubila (Moberg) Essl.                                                                                     Obermeyer 2009


DEGELIA Arv. & D.J. Galloway (1981)

plumbea (Lightf.) P.M. Jørg. & P. James = Pectenia plumbea



fallax Brusse                                                                                                       Brusse 1986c

thunbergii (Ach.) Nyl.                                                                                     Almborn 1987, Almborn 1988b

viride (L.f.) Zahlbr.                                                                                          

pusillum (Hedw.) Anzi = Endocarpon pusillum                             



deserti Zahlbr.                                                                                                  

peltatum (Taylor) Zahlbr.                                                                             

vitellinum Spreng.                                                                                          


DIBAEIS Clem. (1909)

baeomyces (L.f.) Rambold & Hertel                                                         Almborn 1988a, Thomas & Bhat 1996


DIGITOTHYREA P.P. Moreno & Egea (1992)                                         

rotundata (Büdel, Henssen & Wessels) P.P. Moreno                       Henssen et al. 1985

 & Egea                                                                                


DIMELAENA Norman (1853)

australiensis H. Mayrhofer & Sheard                                                       Mayrhofer et al. 1996

oreina (Ach.) Norman                                                                                    Mayrhofer et al. 1996

tenuis (Müll. Arg.) H. Mayrhofer & Wippel                                           Mayrhofer et al. 1996


DIMERELLA Trevis 1880

lutea (Dicks.) Trevis. = Coenogonim luteum

epiphylla (Müll. Arg.) Malme = Coenogonim subluteum


DIPLOICIA A. Massal. (1852)                                                                       

africana (Tuck.) Matzer, H. Mayrhofer & Rambold                            Matzer et al. 1998

quaterna (Zahlbr.) C.W. Dodge = Buellia quaterna



urceolata Vain.                                                                                                 



actinostomus (Pers. ex Ach.) Zahlbr.                                                       Almborn 1988b, Guderley & Lumbsch 1996, Zedda & Rambold 2004

aeneus (Müll. Arg.) Lumbsch                                                                      Guderley & Lumbsch 1996, Zedda & Rambold 2004

austroafricanus Guderley & Lumbsch                                                     Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

cinereocaesius (Sw.) Vain.                                                                           Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

diacapis (Ach.) Lumbsch                                                                                Almborn 1988b

diploschistoides (Vain.) Salisbury                                                              Almborn 1960, Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

euganeus (A. Massal.) J. Steiner                                                               Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

hensseniae Lumbsch & Elix                                                                          Guderley & Lumbsch 1996, Zedda & Rambold 2004

hypoleucus Lumbsch & Elix                                                                          Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

isabellinus Zahlbr.                                                                                            Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

muscorum subsp. bartletii Lumbsch                                                        Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

scruposus (Schreb.) Norm.                                                                          Guderley & Lumbsch 1996, Thomas & Bhat 1996

sticticus (Körb.) Müll. Arg.                                                                            Lumbsch 1993, Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

cf. thelenelloides Lumbsch & Aptroot                                                     Zedda & Rambold 2004

thunbergianus (Ach.) Lumbsch & Vězda                                                Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

actinostomus var. aeneus (Müll. Arg.) J. Steiner - D. aeneus       

actinostumus var. caesioplumbeus (Nyl.) J. Steiner  (SA collections) = D. diploschistoides

almbornii C.W. Dodge = D. diploschistoides

anactinus (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = D. euganeus

arenarius (Schaer.) Müll. Arg. = D. muscorum

bellus Zahlbr. =  Incvariella bispora

caesioplumbeus (Nyl.) Vain. = D. diploschistoides

deuterius (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = D. euganeus

ochroniger Zahlbr. = Gyalideopsis athallinoides

perispicillatus Zahlbr. = D. sticticus

scruposus var. arenarius (A. Massal.) Müll. Arg. = D. muscorum

scruposus f. iridatus (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. = D. scruposus

subcupreus (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = D. sticticus


DIPLOTOMMA Flot. (1849)

alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flot.                                                                              Nordin 2000

durbanum (Vain.) C.W. Dodge Buellia durbana

endorhodinum (Vain.) Szatala = Buellia endorhodina


DIRINA Fr. (1825)

capensis Fée                                                                                                     


DIRINARIA (Tuck.) Clem. (1909)                                                                

aegialita (Afz.) Moore var. aegialita                                                          Awasthi 1975

africana (Müll. Arg.) D. D. Awasthi                                                            Awasthi 1975

applanata (Fée) D.D. Awasthi                                                                    

aspera (H. Magn.) D. D. Awasthi                                                                Awasthi 1975

coccinea (Müll. Arg.) D. D. Awasthi                                                           Awasthi 1975, Swinscow & Krog 1988

confluens (Fr.) D. D. Awasthi var. confluens                                         Awasthi 1975

flava (Müll. Arg.) C.W. Dodge                                                                     Brusse 1988e

isidiophora (Nyl.) C.W. Dodge                                                                   

melanoclina (C. Knight) D. D. Awasthi                                                     Awasthi 1975

leopoldii (Stein) D. D. Awasthi                                                                    Awasthi 1975

picta (Sw.) Schaer. ex Clem.                                                                        Thomas & Bhat 1994, Thomas & Bhat 1996)

purpurascens (Vain.) B.J. Moore                                                               Awasthi 1975

subpicta (Nyl.) C. W. Dodge                                                                         Awasthi 1975

purpurascens f. colorata D. D. Awasthi = D. purpurascens


DOLICHOUSNEA (Y. Ohmura) Articus 2004

diffracta (Vain.) Articus  =Usnea diffracta

trichodeoides (Vain. ex Motyka) Articus = Usnea trichodeoides


DUFOUREA Ach. (1809)

physcioides A. Massal.                                                                                  



speciosum Brusse                                                                                            Brusse 1987e



epiphylla Fée                                                                                                     Brusse 1988e

pellicula (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.                                                                       Brusse 1988e

strigulacea (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.                                                                  Brusse 1991c, Farkas 2004


ENDOCARPON Hedw. (1788)

pusillum Hedw.                                                                                                

peltatum Taylor = Dermatocarpon peltatum


ENTEROGRAPHA Fée (1825)                                                                      

crassa (DC.) Fée                                                                                               


ENTEROSTIGMA Müll. Arg. (1885 )

compunctum (Ach.) Müll. Arg.                                                                  


EPHEBE Fr. (1825)                                                                                           

lanata (L.) Vain.                                                                                                

orthogonia Henssen                                                                                       Henssen 1963


EREMASTRELLA S. Vogel (1955)

crystallifera (Taylor) Gotth. Schneid.                                                       Almborn 1988b, Vogel 1955

montana Brusse                                                                                               Brusse 1987f

tobleri Vogel = E. crystallifera


ERIODERMA Fée (1825)

leylandii (Taylor) Müll. Arg.                                                                          Jørgensen 2001, Jørgensen 2003


*ETAYOA Diederich & Ertz (2014)

*trypethelii (Flakus & Kukwa) Diederich & Ertz                                   Ertz et al 2014


EUMITRIA Stirt. 1881

baileyi Stirt. = Usnea baileyi

liechtensteinii (J. Steiner) Vain. = Usnea liechtensteinii


FELLHANERA Vězda (1986)

bouteillei (Desm.) Vězda                                                                              Santesson 1952, Farkas 2004

fuscatula (Müll. Arg.) Vězda                                                                        Brusse 1991b, Farkas 2004

stanhopiae (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Lumbsch & Elix                                 Farkas, 2004

subternella (Nyl.) Vězda                                                                               Farkas, 2004



amplexa (Stirt.) Hale                                                                                       Hale 1976a

caperata (L.) Hale                                                                                            

pachydactyla (Hale) Hale                                                                              Brusse 1991c

rutidota (Hook.f. & Taylor) Hale                                                                

salazinica Elix                                                                                                      Elix 1999a

soredians (Nyl.) Hale                                                                                      Hale 1976a


FLAVOPUNCTELIA (Krog) Hale (1984)

flaventior (Stirt.) Hale                                                                                    Brusse 1988e

soredica (Nyl.) Hale                                                                                         Brusse 1988e


FUSCIDEA V. Wirth & Vězda (1972)

hottentotta Brusse                                                                                         Brusse 1989a

cyathoides (Ach.) V. Wirth & Vězda (SA records) = F. hottentotta



leucosticta (Tuck.) P.M. Jørg.

subimmixta (C. Knight) P. M. Jørg.                                                            Jørgensen 2002b, Jørgensen 2003


GLYPHIS Ach. (1814)

cicatricosa Ach.                                                                                                 Almborn 1988b

scyphulifera (Ach.) Staiger                                                                           Almborn 1988b

cicatricosa var. confluens (Zenk.)Zahlbr. = G. cicatricosa

cicatricosa var. simplicior (Vain.) Zahlbr. = G. cicatricosa


GLYPHOPELTIS Brusse (1985)

ligustica (B. de Lesd.) Timdal                                                                       Brusse 1985b, Timdal 1988

eburina Brusse = G. ligustica


GOMPHILLUS Nyl. (1855)

calycioides (Delise ex Duby) Nyl.                                                               Brusse 1989c


GONOLECANIA Zahlbr. (1924)

fumosonigricans (Müll. Arg.) Brusse                                                        Brusse 1991b



macrocarpoides (Zahlbr.) Aptroot                                                           


GRAPHINA Müll. Arg. (1880)

acharii (Fée) Müll. Arg.                                                                                  Almborn 1988b

analoga (Nyl.) Zahlbr.                                                                                    

atrofusca Müll. Arg.                                                                                       

bylii (Vain.) Zahlbr.                                                                                         

obtrita (Fée) Müll. Arg.                                                                                 

pergracilis Zahlbr.                                                                                            

platycarpa (Eschw.) Zahlbr.                                                                         

polycarpa Müll. Arg.                                                                                       

bylii var. lividula (Vain.) Zahlbr. =  G. bylii


GRAPHIS Adans. (1763)                                                                                

denudans Vain.                                                                                               

devestiens Nyl.                                                                                                

diaphoroides Müll. Arg.                                                                                

intexta Nyl.                                                                                                        

intricata Fée                                                                                                      

scripta (L.) Ach.                                                                                                

striatula (Ach.) Spreng.                                                                                 

subolivacea Zahlbr.                                                                                        


GYALECTA Ach. (1808)                                                                                  

carneola (Ach.) Hellb.                                                                                    

thunbergiana Ach. = Diploschistes thunbergiana


GYALECTIDIUM Müll. Arg. (1881)

filicinum Müll. Arg.                                                                                          Brusse 1991b

microcarpum (Vězda) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda                                   Brusse 1993



athallinoides (Nyl.) Vězda                                                                            Lumbsch 1993



latispora Egea & Torrente                                                                             Egea & Torrente 1996



scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl. = Glyphis scyphulifera


HAEMATOMMA A. Massal. (1852)

africanum (J. Steiner) C. W. Dodge                                                           Staiger & Kalb 1995

collatum (Stirt.) C. W. Dodge                                                                       Staiger & Kalb 1995

fenzlianum A. Massal.                                                                                    Staiger & Kalb 1995

persoonii (Fée) A. Massal.                                                                           Staiger & Kalb 1995

puniceum (Sw.) A. Massal.                                                                         

puniceum var. africanum J. Steiner = H. africanum

puniceum var. collatum (Stirt.) Zahlbr. = H. collatum

puniceum var. breviculum (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. = H. puniceum

puniceum var. rufidulum Zahlbr. = H. puniceum

puniceum var. subarthonioideum Zahlbr. = H. puniceum


HAFELLIA Kalb, H. Mayrhofer & Scheid. (1986)

demutans (Stirt.) Pusswald                                                                         Marbach 2000

dissa (Stirt.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard                                                        Marbach 2000

procellarum (A. Massal.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard                              

tetrapla (Nyl.) Pusswald,                                                                             



natalense Vain.                                                                                                


HEPPIA Nägeli ex A. Massal. (1854)

adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal.                                                                Schultz et al. 2009

guepini var. nigrolimbata Nyl.

lutosa (Ach.) Nyl.                                                                                             Büdel 1987

euploca Vain. = Peltula euploca

guepini (Delise) Nyl. = Peltula euploca


HETERODERMIA Trevis. (1868)

albicans (Pers.)                                                                                                 Swinscow & Krog 1988, Trass 1992, Moberg 2004

allardii (Kurok.) Trass                                                                                      Trass 1992

antillarum (Vain.) Swinscow & Krog                                                         Trass 1992, Moberg 2004

boryi (Fée) Kr.P. Singh & S.R. Singh                                                         

chilensis (Kurock.) Swinscow & Krog                                                        Moberg 2004

comosa (Eschw.) Follmann & Redon                                                        Brusse 1988e, Moberg 2004

dactyliza (Nyl.) Swinscow & Krog                                                               Brusse 1988e

diademata (Taylor) D.D. Awasthi                                                               Thomas & Bhat 1994, Moberg 2004

flabellata (Fée) D.D. Awasthi                                                                      Brusse 1988e, Moberg 2004

hypocaesia (Yasuda) D.D. Awasthi                                                            Trass 1992

hypoleuca (Muhl.) Trevis.                                                                           

isidiophora (Vain.) D.D. Awasthi                                                                Moberg 2004

japonica (M. Sato) Swinscow & Krog                                                       Moberg 2004

lepidota Swinscow & Krog                                                                            Brusse 1988e, Galloway 1995

leucomela (L.) Poelt                                                                                        Almborn 1988b, Galloway 1995, Thomas & Bhat 1996, Moberg 2004

lutescens (Kurock.) Follmann                                                                     Brusse 1988e

magellanica (Zahlbr.) Swinscow & Krog                                                  Galloway 1995

microphylla (Kurock.) Swinscow & Krog                                                 Brusse 1988e, Moberg 2004

namaquana Brusse                                                                                         Brusse 1992, Moberg 2004

obscurata (Nyl.) Trev                                                                                      Brusse 1988e, Moberg 2004

podocarpa (Bél.) D.D. Awasthi                                                                   Moberg 2004

spathulifera Moberg & Purvis                                                                     Moberg 2004

speciosa (Wulfen) Trevis.                                                                             Galloway 1995, Thomas & Bhat b1996

subcitrina Moberg                                                                                           Moberg 2004

tremulans (Müll. Arg.) W.L. Culb.                                                              Moberg 2004

vulgaris (Vain.) Follm. & Redón                                                                  Swinscow & Krog 1988, Trass 1992



acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss = Placidium acarosporoides


HYPERPHYSCIA Müll. Arg. (1894)

adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt                                            Moberg 2004

cochlearis Scutari                                                                                             Scutari 1997

coralloidea (Lynge) Scutari                                                                           Moberg 2004

granulata (Poelt) Moberg                                                                             Moberg 2004

isidiata Moberg                                                                                                 Moberg 2004

pandani (H. Magn.) Moberg                                                                        Moberg 2004

pruinosa Moberg                                                                                             Moberg 2004

syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb                                                                        Thomas & Bhat 1996, Moberg 2004


HYPOGYMNIA (Nyl.) Nyl. (1896)

bitteri (Lynge) Ahti                                                                                          Brusse 1993

lugubris (Pers.) Krog,                                                                                     

physodes (L.) Nyl.                                                                                           

subphysodes (Kremp.) Filson                                                                     Brusse 1989c

subphysodes var. austerodioides Elix = H. subphysodes


HYPOTRACHYNA (Vain.) Hale (1974)

colensoica Hale, Nash & Elix                                                                        Nash & Elix 1987

densirhizinata (Kurok.) Hale                                                                        Brusse 1988e

erythrodes (Zahlbr.) Hale                                                                             Brusse 1988e

evansii M.D.E. Knox                                                                                        Knox 1982

fissicarpa (Kurok.) Hale                                                                                  Swinscow & Krog 1988

habenula M.D.E. Knox                                                                                   Knox 1982

heterochroa (Hale & Kurok.) Elix                                                               Nash & Elix 1987

imbricatula (Zahlbr.) Hale                                                                             Brusse 1988e

laevigata (Sm.) Hale                                                                                       

leeukopensis Elix                                                                                             Elix 1999a

ligulata M.D.E. Knox                                                                                        Knox 1982

neodissecta (Hale) Hale                                                                                Nash & Elix 1987

orientalis (Hale) Hale                                                                                      Nash & Elix 1987

osseoalba (Vain.) Y.S. Park & Hale                                                            Nash & Elix 1987

pulvinata (Fée) Hale                                                                                      

revoluta (Flörke) Hale                                                                                   

scytophylla (Kurok.) Hale                                                                              Nash & Elix 1987

sinuosa (Sm.) Hale                                                                                          

sublaevigata (Nyl.) Hale                                                                               

subpustulifera Elix                                                                                           Elix 1993, Elix 1999a

bahiana (Nyl.) Hale = H. heterochroa

degelii (Hale) Hale = Myelochroma degelii

formosana (Zahlbr.) Hale = H. osseoalba


ICMADOPHILA Trevis. (1852 )

ericetorum Zahlbr.                                                                                         


IMMERSARIA Rambold & Pietschm. (1989)

athroocarpa (Ach.) Rambold & Pietschm.                                              Brusse 1988b


IMSHAUGIA S.L.F. Mey. (1985)

aleurites (Ach.) S.L.F. Mey.                                                                          Brusse 1993


INGVARIELLA Guderley & Lumbsch (1997)

bispora (Bagl.) Guderley & Lumbsch


KAROOWIA Hale 1989

adhaerens (Nyl.) Hale = Xanthoparmelia adhaerens

adligans (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia adligans

arquata (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia arquata

diutina (Brusse) Elix = Xanthoparmelia diutina

ganymedea (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia ganymedea

insipida (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia insipida

leptoplaca (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia leptoplaca

lyrigera (Brusse) Elix = Xanthoparmelia lyrigera

microscopica Hale = Xanthoparmelia microscopica

perspersa (Stizenb.) Hale = Xanthoparmelia perspersa

protocetrarica Hale = Xanthoparmelia protocetrarica

ralla (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia ralla

salazinica Hale = Xanthoparmelia salazinica

saxeti (Stizenb.) Hale = Xanthoparmelia saxeti

scitula (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia scitula

spissa (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia spissa

squamatica (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia mucinea

subchalybaeizans Hale = Xanthoparmelia subchalybaeizans

supposita (Brusse) Elix = Xanthoparmelia supposita


KROSWIA P.M. Jørg. (2002)

crystallifera P. M. Jørg.                                                                                  Jørgensen 2002a, Jørgensen 2003


LASALLIA Mérat (1821)

capensis (Frey) Llano                                                                                      Frey 1949, Almborn 1987, Almborn 1988b

dilacerata (Frey) Llano                                                                                   Frey 1949, Almborn 1987

glauca (Stizenb.) Llano                                                                                   Almborn 1987

membranacea (Laurer) Llano                                                                      Almborn 1987

papulosa (Ach.) Llano                                                                                     Almborn 1974, Almborn 1987, Almborn 1988b, Swinscow & Krog 1988

pustulata (L.) Mérat                                                                                        Almborn 1987, Swinscow & Krog 1988, Galloway 1995

papulosa var. rubiginosa (Pers.) Llano = L. pustulata

rubiginosa (Pers.) Llano = L. pustulata


LECANACTIS Eschw. (1824)

bullata Zahlbr.                                                                                                  

develans Nyl.                                                                                                    

emersa (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb.                                                                      

ulcerata (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.                                                                        


LECANIA A. Massal. (1853)

arenaria (Anzi) Flagey                                                                                   

cyrtella Th. Fr.                                                                                                   

fructuosa (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.                                                                        


LECANOGRAPHA Egea & Torrente)

lyncea (Sm.) Egea & Torrente

subcaesioides Egea & Torrente                                                                  Egea & Torrente 1996

grumulosa (Dufour) Egea & Torrente = Paralecanographa grumosa


LECANORA Ach. (1809)                                                                                                                                                 

albella (Pers.) Ach.                                                                                         

albospersa Stizenb.                                                                                        

allophana Nyl.                                                                                                  

aspera Stizenb.                                                                                                

atraeformis Vain.                                                                                            

atrorimata Nyl.                                                                                                 

atrosulphurea Ach.                                                                                        

bicincta Ramond                                                                                              

bogotana Nyl.                                                                                                   

breuteliana A. Massal.                                                                                  

bylii Vain.                                                                                                            

bylii Zahlbr. (Nom. Illegit.)                                                                           

caesiopallens Vain.                                                                                         

caesiorubella Ach.                                                                                          

campestris (Schaer.) Hue                                                                            

candidata Stizenb.                                                                                          

carneoflava Müll. Arg.                                                                                   

carpinea (L.) Vain.                                                                                           

chlarotera Nyl.                                                                                                 

chondroplaca Zahlbr.                                                                                     

cinefacta Stizenb.                                                                                           

cruda Stizenb.                                                                                                  

deminuta (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb.                                                                  

diffusilis Nyl.                                                                                                     

dispersa (Pers.) Röhl.                                                                                    

elapheia Stizenb.                                                                                            

epibryon (Ach.) Ach.                                                                                      Brusse 1988e

expallens Ach.                                                                                                  

farinacea Fée                                                                                                    

flexuosa Stizenb.                                                                                            

frustulosa Ach.                                                                                                 

galactiniza Nyl.                                                                                                 

glabrata (Ach.) Malme                                                                                  

helva Stizenb.                                                                                                   

labiosa Stizenb.                                                                                                

leprosa Fée                                                                                                       

leucoxantha Müll. Arg.                                                                                 

nidulans Stizenb.                                                                                             

nubila Stizenb.                                                                                                 

obvirescens Stizenb.                                                                                     

oreinoides (Körb.) Hertel & Rambold                                                     

ostracoderma (Ach.) Ach.                                                                           

polytypa Vain.                                                                                                  

prosecha Ach                                                                                                    

psaromela Nyl.                                                                                                 

pseudistera Nyl.                                                                                               Zedda & Rambold 2004

pulicaris (Pers.) Ach.                                                                                      

rehmannii Stizenb.                                                                                         

rupicola (L.) Zahlbr.                                                                                        

sylvestris (Nyl.) Stizenb.                                                                               

thiocheila Stizenb.                                                                                          

transvaalensis Lumbsch                                                                                Lumbsch et al. 1995

varia (Hoffm.) Ach.                                                                                         

vincentina Nyl.                                                                                                 

allophana var. glabrata (Ach.) J. Steiner = L. glabrata

atra (Huds.) Ach. = Tephromela atra

atrosulphurea f. leptococca Stizenb. = L. atrosulphurea

atrosulphurea f. livens Stizenb. = L. atrosulphurea

badia var. cinerascens Flot. = Protoparmelia badia

blanda Nyl. = L. farinacea

cancriformis (Hoffm.) Vain. = L. caesiorubella

cateileoides Vain. = Caloplaca cateileoides

chlarona f. pinastri Cromb. = L. pulicaris

cinerea (L.) Sommerf. = Aspicilia cinerea

coarctata (Turner) Ach. = Trapelia coarctata

coarctata f. cotaria Ach. = Trapelia coarctata

coarctata f. fulgiana Zahlbr. = Trapelia coarctata

coarctata var. fossulans Sizenb. = Trapelia coarctata

coilocarpa (Ach.) Nyl. = L. pulicaris

dispersa f. nana Vain. = L. dispersa

dispersa f. testacea Vain. = L. dispersa

flavovirens Fée = Vainionora flavovirens

homaloplaca Nyl. = Lecanora prosecha

leptoplaca Zahlbr. (nom illeg.) = Xanthoparmelia leptoplaca

pallida (Schreb. ) Rabenh. = L. albella

prosecha Ach. var. homaloplaca (Nyl.) Vain. = L. prosecha

rupicola var. bicincta (Ramond) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = L. bicincta

subdepressa Nyl. = Aspicilia subdepressa

subfusca (L.) Ach. = L. chlarotera

subfusca var. campestris (Schaer.) Raben. = L. campestris

subfusca var. subcrenulata Nyl. = L. chlarotera

subfusca var. subgranulata Nyl. = L. chlarotera

thaeodes (A. Massal.) Stizenb. = Acarospora thaeodes


LECIDEA Ach. (1803)                                                                                       

achristella Vain.                                                                                               

aeneola (Arnold) Vain.                                                                                 

affine G. Merr. (Nom inval. Art 38.1(a))                                                

anteposita Nyl.                                                                                                

aporetica Stizenb.                                                                                           

bruguierae Vain.                                                                                             

buxea Stizenb.                                                                                                 

caledonica Zahlbr.                                                                                           

capensis Zahlbr.                                                                                               

crassa (Nees) Stizenb.                                                                                  

cyanocentra Nyl.                                                                                             

decrustulata Vain.                                                                                          

elginensis Zahlbr.                                                                                            

erythrophaea Sommerf.                                                                              

esuriens Zahlbr.                                                                                               

exigua Chaub.                                                                                                  

fucina Stizenb.                                                                                                 

fuscoatra Ach.                                                                                                  

fuscotabulata Stizenb.                                                                                  

geina Stizenb.                                                                                                   

glebaria Stizenb.                                                                                              

glencairnensis Zahlbr.                                                                                   

gouritzensis Vain.                                                                                           

griseofusciuscula Vain. ex Van der Byl                                                   

guamensis Vain.                                                                                              

hysbergensis Vain.                                                                                         

inscripta Stizenb.                                                                                             

insculpta Flot.                                                                                                   

lactaria Stizenb.                                                                                               

lactens Stizenb.                                                                                               

langbaanensis Vain.                                                                                       

lapicida (Ach.) Ach.                                                                                         

mutabilis Fée                                                                                                    

natalensis Nyl.                                                                                                  

obumbrata Nyl.                                                                                               

ochroplaca Zahlbr.                                                                                          

oligocheila Zahlbr.                                                                                           

opalina Stizenb.                                                                                               

orbiculata Stizenb.                                                                                          

owaniana Müll. Arg.                                                                                       

pallidonigra Ach.                                                                                              

paraspeirea Stizenb.                                                                                      

peltasta Stirt.                                                                                                    

peltoloma Müll. Arg.                                                                                      

peltulidea Stirt.                                                                                                

phalerata Stizenb.                                                                                          

quartzina Stizenb.                                                                                           

remota Vain. ex van der Byl                                                                       

rhynsdorpensis Zahlbr.                                                                                 

squamifera Stizenb.                                                                                       

stellans Stizenb.                                                                                              

stupparia Stizenb.                                                                                           

subalbicans Nyl.                                                                                               

subattingens G. Merr. ex van der Byl                                                     

subceresina Zahlbr.                                                                                        

subexigua Vain.                                                                                               

subexiguella Vain.                                                                                          

subinquinans Nyl.                                                                                           

sublucida Stizenb.                                                                                           

subcinerascens Nyl. (possibly L. lactea)                                                 

subsquamifera Zahlbr.                                                                                  

subrussula J. Steiner                                                                                      

sulfurosula Stizenb.                                                                                       

terrena Nyl.                                                                                                       

theiochroa (Darb.) Hue                                                                                

theiophoroides Vain. ex Lynge                                                                 

tragorum Zahlbr.                                                                                             

trichiliae Zahlbr.                                                                                               

valida Stizenb.                                                                                                  

vestita (Mont.) Nyl.                                                                                       

zeyheri A. Massal.                                                                                          

aeneola var. fuscoatra (Nyl.) Zahlbr= L. aeneola

albocoerulescens (Wulf.) Ach. = Porpidia albocoerulescens

albocoerulescens var. flavocoerulescens (Hornem.) Schaer. = Porpidia flavocoerulescens

angolensis Müll. Arg. = Lecanora oreinoides

cinnamomea Stizenb. = Lecidella stigmatea

crenata (Taylor) Stizenb. = Psora crenata

crenata var. coroniformis (Kremp.) Zahlbr. = Psora crenata

crenata var. speirea (Taylor) Zahlbr. = Psora crenata

crustulata Ach. = Porpidia crustulata

deceptoria Nyl. = Psora deceptoria

decipiens (Hedw.) Ach. = Psora decipiens

discolor Stizenb. = Buellia discolorans (nom illegit.)

dispersula Stizenb.( non Buellia disprsula Müll. Arg.) = Buellia stizenbergeri

elaeochroma f. flavicans (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Lecidella elaeochroma

elaeochroma f. geographica (Bagl.) Zahlbr. = Lecidella elaeochroma

elaeochroma var. hyalina (Mart.) Zahlbr. = Lecidella elaeochroma

epichromatica Zahlbr. = Lecidella epichromatica

exiguella Vain. = Rinodina exiguella

glomerulosa (DC.) Steud. = Lecidella euphorea

granifera Ach. = Malmidea granifera

granulosa (Hoffm.) Ach. = Trapeliopsis granulosa

grisella var. mosigi Zahlbr. = L. fuscoatra

howickensis Vain. = Poeltiaria howickensis

insculpta f. oxydata Flot. = L. insculpta

lapicida var. pantherina Ach. = L. lapicida

meiospora Nyl. = Porpidia crustulata

nigropallida Nyl. = Toninia nigropallida

ochroplaca var. intermedia Zahlbr. = L. ochroplaca

ochroplaca var. leprosa Zahlbr. = L. ochroplaca

ochroplaca var. polita Zahlbr. = L. ochroplaca

ochroxantha Nyl. = Phyllopsora corallina

ochroxantha f. aethiopica Stizenb. = Phyllopsora corallina

parasema Ach. = Lecidella parasema

parasema var. areolata G. Merr. = Lecidella parasema

parasema var. atropurpurea Flot. = Lecidella parasema

promontorii Zahlbr. = Tephromela promontorii

rivulosa Ach. (SA records) = Fuscidea hottentotta

russula Ach. = Ramboldia russula

speirea (Ach.) Ach. = Porpidia speirea

squamifera var. bylii Zahlbr. = L. squamifera

stellenboschiana Vain. = Megalospora tuberculosa

tenebricosa (Ach.) Nyl. = L. erythrophae

thaleriza Stirt. = Phyllopsora thaleriza

vernalis (L.) Ach. = Biatora vernalis

vorticosa (Flörke) Körb. = Carbonea vorticosa


LECIDELLA Körb. (1855)

aurata Knoph & Leuckert                                                                              Knoph & Leuckert 2000

elaeochroma (Ach.) M. Choisy                                                                  

epichromatica (Zahlbr.) Hertel                                                                  

euphorea (Flörke) Hertel                                                                            

parasema (Ach.) Arnold                                                                               

stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel & Leuckert                                                         

viridans (Flot.) Körb.



brisbanense (C. Knight) P. M. Jørg.                                                          Ekman et al 2014

imbricatulum (Mu¨ ll. Arg.) P. M. Jørg.                                                    Ekman et al 2014

marianum (Fr.) P. M. Jørg.                                                                           Ekman et al 2014


LEPRARIA Ach. (1803)

glaucella Ach.                                                                                                    

incana (L.) Ach.                                                                                                 Brusse 1988e

sipmaniana (Kümmerl. & Leuckert) Kukwa                                           Leuckert & Kümmerling 1991

candelaris (L.) Fr. = Chrysothrix candelaris



albicans (Th. Fr.) Nyl.                                                                                      Almborn 1987


LEPTOGIUM (Ach.) Gray (1821)

africanum Zahlbr.                                                                                            

austroamericanum (Malme) C.W. Dodge                                              Galloway 1995

azureum (Sw.) Mont.                                                                                     Galloway 1995

bullatum (Sw.) Mont.                                                                                    

burgessii (L.) Mont.                                                                                        

caespitosum (Taylor) Swinscow & Krog                                                  Swinscow & Krog 1988,

capense P. M. Jørg. & A.K. Wallace                                                          Jørgensen 1997

chloromeloides Nyl.                                                                                       

chloromelum (Ach.) Nyl.                                                                              

cochleatum (Dicks.) P.M. Jørg. & P. James                                           

coralloideum (Meyen & Flot.) Vain.                                                         Galloway 1995, Thomas & Bhat 1996

cyanescens (Pers.) Körb.                                                                              Thomas & Bhat 1996

daedaleum Nyl.                                                                                               

digitatum (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.                                                                     Swinscow & Krog 1988

hildenbrandii (Garov.) Nyl.                                                                         

kraussii (Flot.) Zahlbr.                                                                                    

marginellum (Sw.) S.F.Gray                                                                        

menziesii (Sw.) Mont.                                                                                   

moluccanum (Pers.) Vain.                                                                           

palmatum (Hudson) Mont.                                                                          Galloway 1995

(Scytinium palmatum (Huds.) Gray)

phyllocarpum (Pers.) Mont.                                                                        Thomas & Bhat 1996

saturninum Nyl.                                                                                               

bullatum var. dactylinoideum Nyl. = L. bullatum

chloromelum var. caespitosum (Taylor) Zahlbr. = L. carspitosum

chloromelum var. crassius Nyl. = L. chloromelum

menziesii f. fuliginosum Müll. Arg. = L. menziesii 

moluccanum var. simplicata Vain. = L. moluccanum

phyllocarpum var. coralloideum (Mey. & Flot.) Hue = L. coralloideum

phyllocarpum var. macrocarpum Nyl. = L. phyllocarpum

tremelloides (L.f.) S. F. Gray = L. cochleatum

tremelloides var. azureum Nyl. = L. azurum