A new checklist of lichenised, lichenicolous and allied fungi reported from South Africa

This checklist is based on the one published in the open-access, on-line journal Bothalia: African Biodiversity and Conservation http://www.abcjournal.org/index.php/ABC/article/view/148, which should be consulted for an introduction as to how the list was prepred and an explanation of the symbols used. I have taken the opportunity to correct some errors and ommissions in the original list (in blue) and further updates will be made periodically.

One major structural change has been made. Synonyms are now included (in italics) at the end of the genus in which they were described or combined; for example, Lecanora thaeodes and Placidium thaeodes, synonyms of Acarospora thaeodes, are now included at the end of Lecanora and Placidium respectively, not after Acarospora thaeodes.

To simplify the list, I have also removed all references to Doidge's 1950 checklist (Bothalia 5:1-1094: lichens pgs 225-376), which is available on-line at: http://www.cybertruffle.org.uk/cyberliber/16452/0005/index.htm). Any taxon for which a reference is not included is known only from the reports in Doidge (1950). Consequently, the most reliable records are those with recent references, and records in genera with few recent references (e.g., Acarospora) should be treated with extreme caution.

This list is only the start of the process of producing an up-to-date checklist of the lichen taxa occurring in South Africa. Many records are based on Doidge (1950), which incorporated reports going back to the 19th (and even 18th) century that were identified by European workers who gave them names of Northern Hemisphere taxa that are now known not to occur in South Africa (e.g., Pectenia (Degelia) plumbea). As with the published list, please send me any corrections, additons or other comments, which will be incorporated into future versions.

Alan Fryday – May 2016



dialeucoides Kalb & Staiger

Kalb et al. 2009


ACAROSPORA A. Massal. (1852)

bella (Nyl.) Jatta

bylii H. Magn.

calviniensis H. Magn.

capensis Zahlbr.

cervina A. Massal.

deserticola Zahlbr.

insculpta H. Magn.

intrusa H. Magn.

laevigata H. Magn.

longispora H. Magn.

lucida H. Magn.

luederitzensis H. Magn.

macrospora (Hepp) Bagl.

meridionalis H. Magn.

negligens H. Magn.

ochrophaea H. Magn.

porinoides (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

schleicheri (Ach.) A. Massal.

Almborn 1988b

socialis H. Magn.

subbadia H. Magn.

subochracea H. Magn.

subtersa H. Magn.

tenuis (Vain.) H. Magn.

thaeodes A. Massal.


sphaerophoroides Lév.

Brusse 1989c

ACTINOPLACA Müll. Arg. 1891

strigulacea Müll. Arg. = Echinoplaca strigulacea


albostrigosus (R. Sant.) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda

Brusse 1988e

ALLARTHOTHELIUM (Vain.) Zahlbr. (1908)

minimum Vain.

ALMBORNIA Essl. 1981

azaniensis Brusse = Xanthoparmelia azaniensis

cafferensis Essl. = Xanthoparmelia ovealmbornii

AMANDINEA M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer (1993)

brugierae (Vain.) Marbach

Marbach 2000

natalensis (Vain.) Marbach

Marbach 2000

punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid.

Almborn 1960, Almborn 1988b

xylographella (Nyl.) Marbach

Marbach 2000

ANAPTYCHIA Körb. (1848)

ciliaris Ach.

Galloway 1995

corallophora (Taylor) Vain.

granulifera A. Massal.

obesa Zahlbr.

palpebrata Vain.

hypoleuca (Muhl.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia hypoleuca

hypoleuca var. colorata Zahlbr. = Heterodermia hypoleuca

leucomelaena (L.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia leucomelos

leucomelaena var. angustifolia (Meyen & Flot.) Müll. Arg. = Heterodermia boryi

obesa f. caesiocrocata Zahlbr. = A. obesa

podocarpa (Bél.) A. Massal. = Heterodermia podocarpa

speciosa (Wulfen) A. Massal. = Heterodermia speciosa

speciosa var. esorediata Vain. = Heterodermia speciosa

speciosa f. sorediosa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Heterodermia speciosa

ANISOMERIDIUM (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy

uniseriale (Zahlbr.) R.C. Harris = Pleurotrema uniseriale

ANTHRACOTHECIUM Hampe ex A. Massal. (1860)

biferum Zahlbr.

duplicans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.

thwaitesii (Leight.) Müll. Arg.

variolosum (Pers.) Müll. Arg.

pyrenuloides (Mont.) Müll. Arg. = Pyrenula pyrenuloides

ARCTOMIA Th. Fr. (1860)

muscicola A. L. Sm.


centrifuga (L.) Hale

ARTHONIA Ach. (1806)

angulata Fée

angulosa Müll Arg.

*anjutii S.Y. Kondr. & Alstrup

Kondratyuk 1996

atra (Pers.) A. Schneid.

Galloway 1995

brussei Egea & Torrente

Egea & Torrente 1996, Egea & Torrente 1997

calospora Müll Arg.

cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr.

circumscissa G. Merr.

hormidiella Stirt.

lecideicarpa Zahlbr.

mira R. Sant.

Brusse 1988e, Farkas, 2004

nana Stizenb.

oblongula Müll. Arg.

palmicola Ach.

polymorpha Ach.

propinqua Nyl.

pyrenuloides Müll. Arg.

rubrofuscescens Vain.

*sytnikii S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefel

Kondratyuk 2002

trilocularis Müll. Arg.

Brusse 1988e

variabilis Müll. Arg.

albida (Müll. Arg.) Willey = Arthothelium albidum

capensis Egea & Torrente non Stizenb. = A. brussei

consanguinea (Müll. Arg.) Willey = Arthothelium consanguneum

obvelata (Müll. Arg.) Willey = Arthothelium obvelatum

wilmsiana Müll. Arg. = Coniarthonia wilmsiana

ARTHOPYRENIA A. Massal. (1852)

alboatra (Kremp.) Müll. Arg.

analepta (Ach.) A. Massal. 

capensis Zahlbr.

cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg.

knysnana Zahlbr.

leucanthes Zahlbr.

norata A. Massal.

paraphysata Zahlbr.

pruinosogrisea (C. Knight) Müll. Arg.

recepta Müll. Arg.

simulans Müll. Arg.

fallax (Nyl.) Arnold = A. analepta

cinchonae var. fumida (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. = A. cinchonae

ARTHOTHELIUM A. Massal. (1852)

abnorme (Ach.) Müll. Arg.

albidum Müll. Arg.

album Zahlbr.

argenteum (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

consanguineum Müll. Arg.

fusconigrum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg.

melanopsis (Stirt.) Zahlbr.

michylum Vain.

obvelatum Müll. Arg.

phaeosporum Zahlbr.

psyllodes Zahlbr.

violascens (Flot.) Zahlbr.

psyllodes var. precursum Zahlbr. = Arthothelium psyllodes


citrinella (Ach.) Poelt

Brusse 1988e

ASPICILIA A. Massal. (1852)

cinerea (L.) Körb.

subdepressa (Nyl.) Arnold

atrorimata (Nyl.) C.W. Dodge =Lecanora atrorimata

breuteliana (A. Massal.) C.W. Dodge = Lecanora breuteliana

bylii (Vain.) C.W. Dodge = Lecanora bylii

chondroplaca (Zahlbr.) C.W. Dodge = Lecanora chondroplaca

diffusilis (Nyl.) C.W. Dodge = Lecanora diffusilis

homaloplaca (Nyl.) C.W. Dodge = Lecanora prosecha

nubila (Stizenb.) Hue = Lecanora nubila

ASTEROTHYRIUM Müll. Arg. (1890)

rotuliforme (Müll. Arg.) Sérus. & J.R. De Sloover

AULAXINA Fée (1825

dictyospora R. Sant.

Brusse 1988e

quadrangula (Stirt.) R. Sant.

Brusse 1988e, Farkas, 2004

AUSTROPARMELIELLA (P.M. Jørg.) P.M. Jørg. 2014

lacerata (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg.

 Ekman et al. 2014

BACIDIA De Not. (1846)

aemula (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

amylothelia Vain.

beckhausii (Stizenb.) Körb.

capreolina (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

caruncula (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

chlorophaeata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

cyrtocheila (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

effusa (Sm.) Trevis.

endoleucella (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

epicyanea Vain.

friesiana (Hepp) Anzi

heteroloma (Vain.) Zahlbr.

inconsequens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

inconveniens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

intermedia Hampe ex A. Massal. 

laurocerasi (Delise ex Duby) Zahlbr. 

leucostephana (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

medialis (Tuck.) Zahlbr.

millegrana (Taylor) Zahlbr.

polychroa (Th. Fr.) Körb.

proposita (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal.

rufata (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

stupposa (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.

subluteola (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

subspadicea (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.

trifaria (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = Bacidina apiahica

beckhausii var. stenospora f. acutata Zahlbr. = B. beckhausii

effusa var. intermedia Zahlbr. = B. effusa

friesiana var. norrlinii Vain. = B. friesiana

heteroloma f. firmior (not in Index Fungorum) = B. heteroloma

endoleuca (Nyl.) Kickx. = B. laurocerasi

fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Bausch = B. polychroa

lugubris (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. = Ropalospora lugubris

luteola (Ach.) Mudd. = B. rubella

luteola f. chlorotica Zahlbr. = B. rubella (Ahti et al. 2016)

luteola f. conspondens Zahlbr. = B. rubella

sabuletorum (Schreb.) Lettau = Bilimbia sabuletorum

BACIDINA Vězda (1991)

apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Vězda 

Brusse 1991b, Farkas 2004

pallidocarnea (Müll. Arg.) Vězda

Brusse 1991b, Farkas 2004

BACULIFERA Marbach & Kalb (2000)

cinereocincta Müll. Arg.

Marbach 2000

micromera (Vain.) Marbach

Marbach 2000

BAEOMYCES Pers. 1794

roseus Pers. (reported as Baeomyces rasens Pers. by Thomas & Bhat 1996) = Dibaeis baeomyce

BIATORA Fr. (1817)

vernalis (L.) Fr.

BIATORELLA De Not. (1846)

armstrongiae (T.A. Jones) Zahlbr.

clavulus (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

lugens (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

palmeti (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

robiginans (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

BILIMBIA De Not. (1846)

sabuletorum (Schreb.) Arnold

BLASTENIA A. Massal. (1852)

acaciae (Vain.) Zahlbr.

aspicilioidea Zahlbr.

brunnthaleri Zahlbr.

imponens (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

laingsburgensis Zahlbr.

ochracea (Schaer.) Trevis.

     (Xanthocarpia ochracea (Schaer.) A. Massal. & De Not.)

praemicans (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

psorothecioides (Vain.) Zahlbr.

punicae (Vain.) Zahlbr.

sedutrix (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

subsalicina Zahlbr.

testaceorufa (Vain.) Zahlbr.

vasquesia A. Massal.

ochracea var. parvula (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. = Blastenia ochracea


aureola (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia aureola

domingensis (Pers.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia domingensis

domingensis var. colorata Vain. = Letrouitia domingensis

domingensis var. flavocrocea Zahlbr. = Letrouitia domingensis

domingensis var. glaucotropa Vain. = Letrouitia domingensis

domingensis var. inexplicata Malme = Letrouitia domingensis

domingensis var. inspersa J. Steiner = Letrouitia domingensis

flavidula (Tuck.) Zahlbr. = Letrouitia flavidula

ncana A.L.Sm. = Megalospora tuberculosa

tuberculosa (Fée) A. Massal. = Megalospora tuberculosa

tuberculosa f. geotropa (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. = Megalospora tuberculosa

zuluensis Vain. = Megalospora tuberculosa


fuscolutea (Dicks.) R. Sant.

leucoxantha (Spreng.) R. Sant.

mariae Trevis.

BRYORIA Brodo & D. Hawksw. (1977)

fuscescens (Gyelnik) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Kärnefelt 1987b

BULLATINA Vězda & Poelt (1987)

viridis Brusse

Brusse 1992, Farkas 2004

microcarpa (Vězda) Brusse = Gyalectidium microcarpum

BUELLIA De Not. (1846)

aethalea (Ach.) Th. Fr.

aethaloessa (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

africana (Tuck.) Tuck.

albula Müll. Arg.

ambuta (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

anatolodia A. Massal.

aequata (Ach.) Szatala

brunnthaleri Zahlbr.

callaina (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

callisporina C.W. Dodge

cangoensis Vain.

coeruleata (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

contingens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

dialytella Vain.

diorista (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

disciformis (Fr.) Mudd.

discolorans Zahlbr. (nom illegit.)

dispersa A. Massal.

distrahens Vain.

distrata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

durbana Vain.

endorhodina Vain.

epichlora (Vain.) Zahlbr.

glenncairnensis Zahlbr.

halonia (Ach.) Tuck.

incuriosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

insidians (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

italica A. Massal.

langbaanensis Vain.

lauricassiae (Fée) Müll. Arg.

leucina Müll. Arg.

lutata (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

meizocarpa Vain.

melanthina (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

microsperma Müll. Arg.

nesiotis (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

ocoteae Vain.

oleicola (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

pachnodes (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

pachysporoides Vain.

perigrapta (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

permodica (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

perspersa J. Steiner

praelata (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

protothallina (Kremp.) Vain. nom. Illegit.

quaterna Zahlbr.

romoletia A. Nordin

Nordin 2000

rudis (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

rusticorum (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

sequax (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

spuria (Schaer.) Anzi

stellulata (Taylor) Mudd.

stizenbergeri Zahlbr.

subdisciformis Vain.

transvaalica (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

triplicans Zahlbr.

vernicoma (Tuck.) Tuck.

abstracta Oliv. = B. sequax

aggrediens (Stirt.) Zahlbr. = Cratiria aggrediens

alboatra (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = Diplotomma alboatrum

ambusta Zahlbr. = B. ambuta

angulosa J. Steiner, non B. de Lesd. = B. brunnthaleri

brugierae Vain. = Amandinea brugierae

callispora (C. Knight) J. Steiner = Hafellia demutans

callispora var. tetrapla (Nyl.) J. Steiner = Hafellia tetrapela

callisporoides Vain. (nom illegit.) = B. callisporina

cinereocincta Müll. Arg. =Baculifera cinereocincta

debanensis (Bagl.) C.W. Dodge) = B. italica

demutans Zahlbr. = Hafellia demutans

disciformis var. cinereopruinosa Vain. = B. disciformis

disciformis var. lecanactina Steiner = B. disciformis

disciformis var. sanguinea (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = B. disciformis

dissa (Stirt.) Zahlbr. = Hafellia dissa

italica var. debanensis Bagl. = B. italica

italica var. recobarina A. Massal. = B. italica

lauricassiae var. macrosperma Zahlbr. = B. lauricassiae

lecanactina (J. Steiner) C.W. Dodge = B. disciformis

micromera Vain. = Baculifera micromera

natalensis Vain. = Amandinea natalensis

procellarum A. Massal. = Hafellia procellarum

procellarum var. continuior J. Steiner = Hafellia procellarum

procellarum var. repens J. Steiner = Hafellia procellarum

protothallina var. indissimilis Vain. = B. protothallina

punctata var. aequata (Ach.) Zahlbr. = B. aequata

punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. (inc. f. marcidula Zahlbr., f. punctiformis Hazsl.) = Amandinea punctata

recobarina (A. Massal.) Müll. Arg. = B. italica

spuria var. insularis (A. Massal.) Jatta = B. spuria

stellulata f. albosparsa Zahlbr. = B. stellulata

stellulata f. hybrida Zahlbr. = B. stellulata

stellulata f. murina Zahlbr. = B. stellulata

subcinerascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Lecanora subcinerascens

subtristis (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = Rinodina subtristis (Mayrhofer 1984, Matzer & Mayrhofer 1996, Ahti et al. 2016)

tetrapla (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. = Hafellia tetrapela

verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd = B. aethalea

viridiatra (Wulfen) H. Olivier = Rhizocarpon viridiatrum

BULBOTHRIX Hale (1974)

coronata (Fée) Hale

Hale 1976b, Swinscow & Krog 1988

decurtata (Kurok.) Hale

Hale 1976b

goebelii (Zenker) Hale

Hale 1976b

isidiza (Nyl.) Hale

Hale 1976b

sensibilis (J. Steiner & Zahlbr.) Hale

Brusse 1988e, Hale 1976b

suffixa (Stirt.) Hale

Hale 1976b, Swinscow & Krog 1988

tabacina (Mont. & Bosch) Hale

Hale 1976b

ventricosa (Hale & Kurok.) Hale

Hale 1976b, Swinscow & Krog 1988

BUNODOPHORON A. Massal. (1861)

melanocarpum (Sw.) Wedin 


fumosonigricans R. Sant. = Gonolecania fumosonigricans

BYSSOLOMA Trevis. (1853)

leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain.

Santesson 1952, Farkas 2004

subdiscordans (Nyl.) P. James

Brusse 1988e

tricholomum (Mont.) Zahlbr. 

rotuliforme (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. = B. subdiscordans

tricholomum f. confluens Vain. = B. tricholomum

CALENIA Müll. Arg. 1890

nonospora Vězda = Bulletina viridis

CALOPLACA Th. Fr. (1860)

almbornii Kärnefelt

Kärnefelt 1987a, Kärnefelt 1988, Almborn 1988a

amphidoxa (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

arenaria (Pers.) Müll. Arg.

     (Rufoplaca arenaria (Pers.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén)

bonae-spei Almb. & Poelt

Almborn 1988a, Kärnefelt 1988

     (Teloschistopsis bonae-spei (Almb. & Poelt) Frödén, Arup & Søchting)

calviniana Zahlbr.

capensis (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.

cardinalis Zahlbr.

cataschista Zahlbr.

cateileoides (Vain.) Plümper & Lumbsch

cerina (Ach.) Th. Fr.

cinnabarina (Ach.) Zahlbr.

Almborn 1988a, Kärnefelt 1988

cinnabariza (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

coccinella (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

conchiliata Zahlbr.

crocodes (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.

delectans Zahlbr.

discolorella Zahlbr.

ecklonii (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.

effusa G. Merr.

fecunda Zahlbr.

ferruginea (Huds.) Th. Fr.

     (Blastenia ferruginea (Huds.) A. Massal.)

ferrogineovirens (Vain.) Zahlbr.

flavovirescens Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

gracilescens Zahlbr.

granulosa Jatta

gyalectoides S.Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt

Kärnefelt et al. 2002b

haematodes (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.

Almborn 1960, Kärnefelt 1988

hampeana (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.

holocarpa (Hoffm.) A.E. Wade

isidiosa (Vain.) Zahlbr.

Kärnefelt 1988

leptopisma (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

massula Zahlbr.

mastophora (Vain.) Zahlbr.

neethlingii Zahlbr.

ochraceofulva (Müll. Arg.) Jatta

Almborn 1987, Kärnefelt 1988

odoardii (Bagl.) Zahlbr.

pallidior (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.

perexigua (Vain.) Zahlbr.

phlogina Flagey

     (Polycauliona phlogina (Ach.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting)

placidia J. Steiner

platyna Zahlbr.

pyropoecila (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

pyropoeciloides Zahlbr.

regalis (Vain.) Zahlbr.

     (Gondwania regalis (Vain.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup)

saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin 

scoriophila (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.

     (Usnochroma scoriophila (A. Massal.) Søchting, Arup & Frödén)

sophodes (Vain.) Zahlbr.

subcerina (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

sublobulata (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Almborn 1960, Almborn 1988b, Kärnefelt 1988

subseptata Zahlbr.

subsoluta (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

     (Squamulea subsoluta (Nyl.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén)

subunicolor (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Kärnefelt 1988

sympageella (Vain.) Zahlbr.

teicophila (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.

aurantiaca (Lightf.)Th. Fr. (inc. f. fulva Zahlbr.) = C. ferriginea

carphinea var. scoriophila (A. Massal.) J. Steiner. = C. scoriophila

cinnabarina var. opaca (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = C. cinnabarina

elegans (Link) Th. Fr. = Xanthora elegans

ferruginea f. erysibe Jatta = C. ferriginea

lamprocheila Flagey. = C. arenaria

murorum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. = C. saxicola

pallidior f. opaca (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. = C. cinnabarina

pyracea f. subpicta Zahlbr. ("on rock") = C. holocarpa

regalis f. prostrata (Hue) Zahlbr. = C. regalis

subnitida (Malme) Zahlbr. = C. ochraceofulva

tegularis (Ehrh.) Sandst. = Xanthora elegans

verruculifera (Vain.) Zahlbr = ? C. granulosa

CALOPADIA Vězda (1986)

fusca (Müll. Arg.) Vězd

Brusse 1988e

puiggarii (Müll. Arg.) Vězda Brusse 1988e

Brusse 1988e

subcoerulescens (Zahlbr.) Vězda

Farkas, 2004

CANDELARIA A. Massal. (1852)

conclor (Dicks.) Arnold

Almborn 1966, 1988b

Candelaria concolor f. phaeocarpa Almb. = C. conclor

Candelaria fibrosa (Fr.) Müll. Arg. = C. conclor (SA records)

CANDELARIELLA Müll. Arg. (1894)

coralliza (Nyl.) H. Magn.

Brusse 1988e

elaeophaea (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

glaucolivescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg.

vitellina f. athallina (Wedd.) Zahlbr. = C. vitellina

CANOMACULINA Elix & Hale (1987)

pilosa (Stizenb.) Elix & Hale

Hale 1976c, Swinscow & Krog 1988, Thomas & Bhat 1996

subcaperata (Kremp.) Elix

Hale 1974, Elix 1999a

uruguensis (Kremp.) Elix

CANOPARMELIA Elix & Hale (1986)

antedeluvialis (Brusse & Sipman) Elix

Brusse 1993, Elix 1997

aptata (Kremp.) Elix & Hale

Hale 1976a

crozalsiana (B. de Lesd. ex Harm.) Elix & Hale

Hale 1976a

nairobiensis (J. Steiner & Zahlbr.) Elix & Hale

owariensis (Asahina ) Elix

Elix 1993, Nash & Elix 1987

pustulescens (Kurok.) Elix

Hale 1976a

raunkiaeri (Vain.) Elix & Hale

Nash & Elix 1987

rodriguesiana (Hue) Elix

Elix 1999a, Hale 1976a

terrapapia Elix

Elix 1999a

texana (Tuck.) Hale

Hale 1976a

zambiensis (Hale) Elix & Hale

Nash & Elix 1987

zimbabwensis (Hale) Elix & Hale

Hale 1972, Swinscow & Krog 1988

CARBONEA (Hertel) Hertel (1983)

vorticosa (Flörke) Hertel

oreinoides (Körb.) Brusse = Lecanora oreinoides


acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) J.W. Thomson = Placidium acarosporoides

kaernefeltii (Breuss) Breuss = Placidium kaernefeltii

squamullosum (Ach.) Bruess = Placidium squamulosum

tenellum Breuss = Placidium tenellum


mira Brusse

Brusse 1994

splendida Brusse

Brusse 1994

CATILLARIA A. Massal. (1852)

chalybeia (Borrer) A. Massal.

Almborn 1960

crystallifera H. Kilias

Kilias 1984

golubkovae Kotlov

Kotlov 2002

lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr.

melampepla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.

mollescens Zahlbr.

mortualis (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

nigroclavata (Nyl.) J. Steiner

opacata (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

rhyparoleuca A. Massal.

stictella (Stirt.) Zahlbr.

subfuscata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

bouteillei (Desm.) A. Zahlbr. = Fellhanera bouteillei

intermixta (Nyl.) Arnold = Megalaria intermixta

intermixta f. cyanocentra Zahlbr. = Megalaria intermixta

lenticularis f. chloropoliza Boist. = C. lenticularis

schumannii var. meridionalis Cl. Roux & Vězda = Micarea melanidea

CETRARIA Ach. (1803)

aculeata (Schreb.) Fr.

muricata (Ach.) Eckfeldt

Kärnefelt 1986

chlorophylla (Willd. ex Humb.) Poetsch = Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla

CETRELIA W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. (1968)

cetrarioides (Delise ex Duby) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.

olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb & C. F. Culb.

CHAPSA A. Massal.)

diploschistoides (Zahlbr.) Frisch 

CHIODECTON Ach. (1814)

colensoi (A. Massal.) Müll. Arg.

galactinum Zahlbr.

natalense Nyl.

vanderbylii Zahlbr.

capense (A. Massal) Zahlbr. = C. colensoi

sanguineum f. roseocinctum (Fr.) Vain. = C. natalensis

sanguineum f. rosaceotinctum (Fr.) Vain. = C. natalensis

venosum (Pers.) Zahlbr. =  Enterographa crassa

CHROODISCUS (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg. (1890)

mirificus (Krempelh.) R. Sant.

Brusse 1991b

verrucosus R. Sant.,Lücking & Vězda

Farkas, 2004

CHRYSOTHRIX Mont. (1852)

candelaris (L.) J. R. Laundon

CLADIA Nyl. (1870)

aggregata (Sw.) Nyl.

polia (R. Sant.) W.A. Weber = Cladonia polia

CLADONIA P. Browne (1756)

borbonica Nyl.

Abbayes 1964, Ahti & Aptroot 1992

centrophora Müll Arg.

Swinscow & Krog 1988

chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Spreng.

confusa R. Sant.

Almborn 1987

conista (Nyl.) Robbins

Pino-Bodas et al. 2012,  Ahti et al. 2016

corniculata Ahti & Kashiw.

Ahti et al. 2016

crispata (Ach.) Flot.:

Ahti et al. 2016

cryptochlorophaea Asahina

Ahti et al. 2016

didyma (Fée) Vain.

Stenroos 1994

fimbriata (L.) Fr.

floerkeana (Fr.) Sommerf.

Stenroos 1994

fuscocinerea Ahti

Brusse 1988e

grayi G. Merr. ex Sandst.

Ahti et al. 2016

hedbergii Ahti

Brusse 1988e

humilis (With.) J. R. Laundon

Pino-Bodas et al. 2012, Ahti et al. 2016

intermediella Vain.

Ahti et al. 2016

macilenta Hoffm.

Stenroos 1994

merochlorophaea Asahina

Ahti et al. 2016

ochrochlora Flörke

poeciloclada f. brachiata Abbayes

Abbayes 1964

peziziformis (With.) J. R. Laundon

Ahti et al. 2016

pocillum (Ach.) Grognot

pyxidata (L.) Fr.

ramulosa (With.) J.R. Laundon

squamosa (Scop.) Hoffm.

subpungens Abbayes

subradiata (Vain.) Sandst.

Abbayes 1964. Ahti 1993

verticillata Hoffm.

aggregata (Sw.) Spreng. = Cladia aggregata

bacillaris (Ach.) Genth =  C. macilenta (Stenroos 1994, Ahti et al. 2016)

caespiticia (Pers.) Flörke = not substantiated from South Africa (Ahti et al. 2016)

cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti = C. verticillata

coniocraea (Flörke) Spreng. = C. ochrochlora for SA records (Ahti 2000, Ahti et al. 2016)

didyma var. muscigena (Eschw.) Vain. = C. didyma

didyma f. subulata Sandst. = C. didyma

fimbriata var. balfourii (Cromb.) Vain. = C. macilenta (Ahti et al. 2016)

fimbriata var. chondroidea Vain. probably = C. chlorophaea (SA records; Ahti et al. 2016 )

fimbriata var. chlorophaeoides Vain. probably = C. chlorophaea (SA records; Ahti et al. 2016 )

fimbriata var. coniocrea (Flörke) Vain. = C. coniocraea

fimbriata var. nemoxyna (Ach.) Coem. = C. rei but not substantiated from South Africa (Ahti et al. 2016)

fimbriata var. nemoxyna f. fibula (Ach.) Vain. = C. rei but not substantiated from South Africa (Ahti et al. 2016)

fimbriata var. ochrochlora (Flörke) Vain. = C. ochrochlora

fimbriata var. radiata (Schreb.) Coem. = C. subulata

fimbriata var. simplex (Weiss.) Flot. = C. fimbriata

fimbriata var. subradiata Vain. = C. subradiata

fimbriata var. subulata (L.) Vain. = C. subulata

flabelliformis (nom. illeg.) = C. polydactyla, but misapplied name (Ahti et al. 2016)

flabelliformis f. tenella Zahlbr. = C. flabelliformis

leptoclada Abbayes = C. confusa  (SA records; Ahti et al. 2016 )

macilenta var. corticata Vain. = C. macilenta

multiformis G. Merr. = misapplied name (North American species)

multiformis f. subascypha (Vain.) Evans = C. multiformis

pertricosa Kremp. = C. subpugens (Ahti et al. 2016)

pityrea (Flörke) Fr. = C. ramulosa

pityrea var. subareolata Vain. = C. ramulosa

pityrea var. zwackhii Vain. f. scyphifera (Del.) Vain. = C. ramulosa

poeciloclada Abbayes = C. borbonica (Ahti & Aptroot 1992)

polia R. Sant. = C. confusa  (Ahti et al. 2016)

portentosa (Dufor) Coem. = C. confusa (SA records;  Ahti et al. 2016)

pycnoclada (Pers.) Nyl. = C. confusa (SA records;  Ahti et al. 2016)

pycnoclada f. exalbescens Vain. = C. pycnoclada  (Ahti et al. 2016)

pyxidata var. ophaea f. staphylea (Ach.) Harm. = C. chlorophaea

pyxidata var. pocillum (Ach.) Flot. = C. pocillum

rangiferina (L.) F.H. Wigg. = probably C. confusa (SA records;  Ahti et al. 2016)

rangiformis Hoffm. = C. subpungens (SA records;  Ahti et al. 2016)

rangiformis var. foliosa Flörke = C. rangiformis

rangiformis var. pungens (Ach.) Vain. probably = C. subpugens (SA records; Ahti et al. 2016)

rei Schaer = not substantiated from South Africa (Ahti et al. 2016)

subulata (L.) F.H. Wigg. probably = C. corniculata (Ahti et al. 2016)

sylvatica = ?C. confusa

verticillata Hoffm. = C. cervicornis subsp. verticillata

CLATHROPORINA Müll. Arg. (1882)

locuples (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.


flavum (Zahlbr.) Buesse Brusse 1993

COCCOCARPIA Pers. (1827)

palmicola (Sprengel) Arv. & D.J. Galloway

Arvidsson 1982, Brusse 1988e

pellita (Ach.) Müll Arg.

pellita var. parmelioides Müll. Arg. = C. pellita


epiphorellum (Nyl.) Kärnefelt = Coelopogon epiphorellus

muricatum (Ach.) J. R. Laundon = Cetraria muricata

COELOPOGON Brusse & Kärnefelt (1991)

abraxas Brusse

Brusse & Kärnefelt 1991

epiphorellus (Nyl.) Brusse & Kärnefelt

Kärnefelt 1986, Almborn 1988b, Brusse & Kärnefelt 1991

COENOGONIUM Ehrenb. (1820)

afrum A. Massal.

flavicans (Vězda & Farkas) Kalb & Lücking

Farkas, 2004

interplexum Nyl.

luteum (Dicks.) Kalb & Lücking

Brusse 1991c

moniliforme Tuck.

Brusse 1988e

subluteum (Rehm) Kalb & Lücking

Brusse 1991b

COLLEMA P. Browne (1756)

almbornii Degel.

Degelius 1974

     (Paracollema almbornii (Degel.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin)

coccophorum Tuck.

Schultz et al. 2009

     (Enchylium coccophorum (Tuck.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin)

crispum (L.) F.H. Wigg.

     (Blennothallia crispa (L.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin)

fasciculare (L.) F.H. Wigg.

Degelius 1974

     (Arctomia fascicularis (L.)  Otálora & Wedin, Gabura fasciculare (L.) P. M. Jørg.)

furfuraceum (Arnold) Du Rietz

Degelius 1974

hueanum Degel. var. hueanum

Degelius 1974, Moberg 1987

japonicum (Müll Arg.) Hue

Degelius 1974

kauaiense H. Magn. Degelius 1974

Degelius 1974

     (Scytinium kauaiense (H. Magn.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin)

leptaleum Tuck.

Degelius 1974

nigrescens (Huds.) DC.

polycarpon Hoffm.

Degelius 1974

     (Enchylium polycarpon (Hoffm.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin)

redundans Nyl.

subconveniens Nyl.

Galloway 1995

subflaccidum Degel.

Degelius 1974

tenax (Sw.) Ach. Degelius 1974

Degelius 1974

     (Enchylium tenax (Sw.) Gray)

texanum Degel.

Zedda & Rambold 2004

thysaneum Ach.

aggregatum (Ach.) Röhl = C. fasciculare

furfuraceum var. luzonense Degel. = C. furfuraceum

leptaleum var. bilosum (Mont.) Degel. - C. leptaleum

COMBEA De Not. (1846)

mollusca (Ach.) Nyl.

Almborn 1988a, Almborn 1988b, Follmann et al. 1994

CONOTREMA Tuck. (1848)

volvarioides (Fée) Müll. Arg.


wilmsiana (Müll. Arg.) Grube

CORNICULARIA (Schreb.) Hoffm.

epiphorella (Nyl.) Kärnefelt = Coelopogon epiphorellus

tenuissima (L.) Zahlbr. =  Cetraria aculeata

CORYNECYSTIS Brusse (1985)

capensis Brusse

Brusse 1985a, Büdel 1987

CRATIRIA Marbach (2000)

aggrediens (Stirt.) Marbach

Marbach 2000


aurata (Ach.) Link

Almborn 1988a, Almborn 1988b, Moncada et al. 2013

CRUTARNDINA Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch (2012)

petractoides (P.M. Jørg. & Brodo) Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch

Brusse 1988e

CRYPTOTHECIA Stirt. (1876)

subnidulans Stirt.

CULBERSONIA Essl. (2000)

nubila (Moberg) Essl.

Obermeyer 2009

DEGELIA Arv. & D.J. Galloway (1981)

plumbea (Lightf.) P.M. Jørg. & P. James = Pectenia plumbea (Ekman et al. 2014)


fallax Brusse

Brusse 1986c

thunbergii (Ach.) Nyl.

Almborn 1987, Almborn 1988b

viride (L.f.) Zahlbr.

pusillum (Hedw.) Anzi = Endocarpon pusillum


deserti Zahlbr.

peltatum (Taylor) Zahlbr.

vitellinum Spreng.

DIBAEIS Clem. (1909)

baeomyces (L.f.) Rambold & Hertel

Almborn 1988a, Thomas & Bhat 1996

DIGITOTHYREA P.P. Moreno & Egea (1992)

rotundata (Büdel, Henssen & Wessels) P.P. Moreno & Egea

Henssen et al. 1985

DIMELAENA Norman (1853)

australiensis H. Mayrhofer & Sheard

Mayrhofer et al. 1996

oreina (Ach.) Norman

Mayrhofer et al. 1996

tenuis (Müll. Arg.) H. Mayrhofer & Wippel

Mayrhofer et al. 1996, Ahti et al. 2016

DIMERELLA Trevis 1880

lutea (Dicks.) Trevis. = Coenogonim luteum

epiphylla (Müll. Arg.) Malme = Coenogonim subluteum

DIPLOICIA A. Massal. (1852)

africana (Tuck.) Matzer, H. Mayrhofer & Rambold

Matzer et al. 1998

quaterna (Zahlbr.) C.W. Dodge = Buellia quaterna


urceolata Vain.


actinostomus (Pers. ex Ach.) Zahlbr.

Almborn 1988b, Guderley & Lumbsch 1996, Zedda & Rambold 2004

aeneus (Müll. Arg.) Lumbsch

Guderley & Lumbsch 1996, Zedda & Rambold 2004

austroafricanus Guderley & Lumbsch

Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

cinereocaesius (Sw.) Vain.

Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch

Almborn 1988b

diploschistoides (Vain.) Salisbur

Almborn 1960, Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

euganeus (A. Massal.) J. Steiner

Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

hensseniae Lumbsch & Elix

Guderley & Lumbsch 1996, Zedda & Rambold 2004

hypoleucus Lumbsch & Elix

Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

isabellinus Zahlbr.

Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

muscorum subsp. bartlettii Lumbsch

Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

scruposus (Schreb.) Norm.

Guderley & Lumbsch 1996, Thomas & Bhat 1996

sticticus (Körb.) Müll. Arg.

Lumbsch 1993, Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

cf. thelenelloides Lumbsch & Aptroot

Zedda & Rambold 2004

thunbergianus (Ach.) Lumbsch & Vězda

Guderley & Lumbsch 1996

actinostomus var. aeneus (Müll. Arg.) J. Steiner - D. aeneus

actinostumus var. caesioplumbeus (Nyl.) J. Steiner  (SA collections) = D. diploschistoides

almbornii C.W. Dodge = D. diploschistoides

anactinus (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = D. euganeus

arenarius (Schaer.) Müll. Arg. = D. muscorum

bellus Zahlbr. =  Incvariella bispora

caesioplumbeus (Nyl.) Vain. = D. diploschistoides

deuterius (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = D. euganeus

ochroniger Zahlbr. = Gyalideopsis athallinoides

perispicillatus Zahlbr. = D. sticticus

scruposus var. arenarius (A. Massal.) Müll. Arg. = D. muscorum

scruposus f. iridatus (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. = D. scruposus

subcupreus (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = D. sticticus

DIPLOTOMMA Flot. (1849)

alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flot.

Nordin 2000

durbanum (Vain.) C.W. Dodge Buellia durbana

endorhodinum (Vain.) Szatala = Buellia endorhodina

DIRINA Fr. (1825)

capensis Fée

DIRINARIA (Tuck.) Clem. (1909)

aegialita (Afz.) Moore var. aegialita

Awasthi 1975

africana (Müll. Arg.) D. D. Awasthi

Awasthi 1975

applanata (Fée) D.D. Awasthi

aspera (H. Magn.) D. D. Awasthi

Awasthi 1975

coccinea (Müll. Arg.) D. D. Awasthi

Awasthi 1975, Swinscow & Krog 1988

confluens (Fr.) D. D. Awasthi var. confluens

Awasthi 1975

flava (Müll. Arg.) C.W. Dodge

Brusse 1988e

isidiophora (Nyl.) C.W. Dodge

melanoclina (C. Knight) D. D. Awasthi

Awasthi 1975

leopoldii (Stein) D. D. Awasthi Awasthi 1975

Awasthi 1975

picta (Sw.) Schaer. ex Clem.

Thomas & Bhat 1994, Thomas & Bhat 1996)

purpurascens (Vain.) B.J. Moore

Awasthi 1975

subpicta (Nyl.) C. W. Dodge

Awasthi 1975

purpurascens f. colorata D. D. Awasthi = D. purpurascens

DOLICHOUSNEA (Y. Ohmura) Articus 2004

diffracta (Vain.) Articus  =Usnea diffracta

trichodeoides (Vain.) Articus = Usnea trichodeoides

DUFOUREA Ach. (1809)

physcioides A. Massal.


speciosum Brusse

Brusse 1987e


epiphylla Fée Brusse 1988e

pellicula (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.

Brusse 1988e

strigulacea (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant.

Brusse 1991c, Farkas 2004

ENDOCARPON Hedw. (1788)

pusillum Hedw.

peltatum Taylor = Dermatocarpon peltatum


crassa (DC.) Fée

ENTEROSTIGMA Müll. Arg. (1885 )

compunctum (Ach.) Müll. Arg.

EPHEBE Fr. (1825)

lanata (L.) Vain.

orthogonia Henssen

Henssen 1963

EREMASTRELLA S. Vogel (1955)

crystallifera (Taylor) Gotth. Schneid.

Almborn 1988b, Vogel 1955

montana Brusse

Brusse 1987f

tobleri Vogel = E. crystallifera

ERIODERMA Fée (1825)

leylandii (Taylor) Müll. Arg.

Jørgensen 2001, Jørgensen 2003

*ETAYOA Diederich & Ertz (2014)

*trypethelii (Flakus & Kukwa) Diederich & Ertz

Ertz et al. 2014

EUMITRIA Stirt. 1881

baileyi Stirt. = Usnea baileyi

liechtensteinii (J. Steiner) Vain. = Usnea liechtensteinii

FELLHANERA Vězda (1986)

bouteillei (Desm.) Vězda 

Santesson 1952, Farkas 2004

fuscatula (Müll. Arg.) Vězda

Brusse 1991b, Farkas 2004

stanhopiae (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Lumbsch & Elix

Farkas, 2004

subternella (Nyl.) Vězda

Farkas, 2004


amplexa (Stirt.) Hale

Hale 1976a

caperata (L.) Hale

pachydactyla (Hale) Hale

Brusse 1991c

rutidota (Hook.f. & Taylor) Hale

salazinica Elix

Elix 1999a

soredians (Nyl.) Hale

Hale 1976a

FLAVOPUNCTELIA (Krog) Hale (1984)

flaventior (Stirt.) Hale

Brusse 1988e

soredica (Nyl.) Hale

Brusse 1988e

FUSCIDEA V. Wirth & Vězda (1972)

hottentotta Brusse

Brusse 1989a

cyathoides (Ach.) V. Wirth & Vězda (SA records) = F. hottentotta


leucosticta (Tuck.) P.M. Jørg.

subimmixta (C. Knight) P. M. Jørg.

Jørgensen 2002b, Jørgensen 2003

GLYPHIS Ach. (1814)

cicatricosa Ach. Almbo

Almborn 1988b

scyphulifera (Ach.) Staiger Almbo

Almborn 1988b

cicatricosa var. confluens (Zenk.)Zahlbr. = G. cicatricosa

cicatricosa var. simplicior (Vain.) Zahlbr. = G. cicatricosa

GLYPHOPELTIS Brusse (1985)

ligustica (B. de Lesd.) Timdal

Brusse 1985b, Timdal 1988

eburina Brusse = G. ligustica

GOMPHILLUS Nyl. (1855)

calycioides (Delise ex Duby) Nyl.

Brusse 1989c

GONOLECANIA Zahlbr. (1924)

fumosonigricans (Müll. Arg.) Brusse

Brusse 1991b


macrocarpoides (Zahlbr.) Aptroot 

GRAPHINA Müll. Arg. (1880)

acharii (Fée) Müll. Arg.

Almborn 1988b

analoga (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

atrofusca Müll. Arg.

bylii (Vain.) Zahlbr.

obtrita (Fée) Müll. Arg.

pergracilis Zahlbr.

platycarpa (Eschw.) Zahlbr.

polycarpa Müll. Arg.

bylii var. lividula (Vain.) Zahlbr. =  G. bylii

GRAPHIS Adans. (1763)

denudans Vain.

devestiens Nyl.

diaphoroides Müll. Arg.

intexta Nyl.

intricata Fée

scripta (L.) Ach.

striatula (Ach.) Spreng.

subolivacea Zahlbr.

GYALECTA Ach. (1808)

carneola (Ach.) Hellb.

thunbergiana Ach. = Diploschistes thunbergiana

GYALECTIDIUM Müll. Arg. (1881)

filicinum Müll. Arg.

Brusse 1991b

microcarpum (Vězda) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda

Brusse 1993


athallinoides (Nyl.) Vězda

Lumbsch 1993


latispora Egea & Torrente

Egea & Torrente 1996


scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl. = Glyphis scyphulifera

HAEMATOMMA A. Massal. (1852)

africanum (J. Steiner) C. W. Dodge

Staiger & Kalb 1995

collatum (Stirt.) C. W. Dodge

Staiger & Kalb 1995

fenzlianum A. Massal.

Staiger & Kalb 1995

persoonii (Fée) A. Massal.

Staiger & Kalb 1995

puniceum (Sw.) A. Massal.

puniceum var. africanum J. Steiner = H. africanum

puniceum var. collatum (Stirt.) Zahlbr. = H. collatum

puniceum var. breviculum (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. = H. puniceum

puniceum var. rufidulum Zahlbr. = H. puniceum

puniceum var. subarthonioideum Zahlbr. = H. puniceum

HAFELLIA Kalb, H. Mayrhofer & Scheid. (1986)

demutans (Stirt.) Pusswald

Marbach 2000

dissa (Stirt.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard

Marbach 2000

procellarum (A. Massal.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard

tetrapla (Nyl.) Pusswald,


natalense Vain.

HEPPIA Nägeli ex A. Massal. (1854)

adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal.

Schultz et al. 2009

guepini var. nigrolimbata Nyl.

Ahti et al. 2016

lutosa (Ach.) Nyl.

Büdel 1987

euploca Vain. = Peltula euploca (Ahti et al. 2016)

guepini (Delise) Nyl. = Peltula euploca  (Ahti et al. 2016)

HETERODERMIA Trevis. (1868)

albicans (Pers.)

Swinscow & Krog 1988, Trass 1992, Moberg 2004

allardii (Kurok.) Trass

Trass 1992

antillarum (Vain.) Swinscow & Krog

Trass 1992, Moberg 2004

boryi (Fée) Kr.P. Singh & S.R. Singh

chilensis (Kurock.) Swinscow & Krog

Moberg 2004

comosa (Eschw.) Follmann & Redon

Brusse 1988e, Moberg 2004

dactyliza (Nyl.) Swinscow & Krog

Brusse 1988e

diademata (Taylor) D.D. Awasthi

Thomas & Bhat 1994, Moberg 2004

flabellata (Fée) D.D. Awasthi

Brusse 1988e, Moberg 2004

hypocaesia (Yasuda) D.D. Awasthi

Trass 1992

hypoleuca (Muhl.) Trevis.

isidiophora (Vain.) D.D. Awasthi

Moberg 2004

laponica (M. Sato) Swinscow & Krog

Moberg 2004

lepidota Swinscow & Krog

Brusse 1988e, Galloway 1995

leucomelos (L.) Poelt

Almborn 1988b, Galloway 1995, Thomas & Bhat 1996, Moberg 2004

lutescens (Kurock.) Follmann

Brusse 1988e

magellanica (Zahlbr.) Swinscow & Krog

Galloway 1995

microphylla (Kurock.) Swinscow & Krog

Brusse 1988e, Moberg 2004

namaquana Brusse

Brusse 1992, Moberg 2004

obscurata (Nyl.) Trev.

Brusse 1988e, Moberg 2004

podocarpa (Bél.) D.D. Awasthi

Moberg 2004

spathulifera Moberg & Purvis

Moberg 2004

speciosa (Wulfen) Trevis.

Galloway 1995, Thomas & Bhat b1996

subcitrina Moberg

Moberg 2004

tremulans (Müll. Arg.) W.L. Culb.

Moberg 2004

vulgaris (Vain.) Follm. & Redón

Swinscow & Krog 1988, Trass 1992

leucomea (L.) Poelt = H. leucomelos


acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss = Placidium acarosporoides

HYPERPHYSCIA Müll. Arg. (1894)

adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt

Moberg 2004

cochlearis Scutari

Scutari 1997

coralloidea (Lynge) Scutari

Moberg 2004

granulata (Poelt) Moberg

Moberg 2004

isidiata Moberg

Moberg 2004

pandani (H. Magn.) Moberg

Moberg 2004

pruinosa Moberg

Moberg 2004

syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb

Thomas & Bhat 1996, Moberg 2004

HYPOGYMNIA (Nyl.) Nyl. (1896)

bitteri (Lynge) Ahti

Brusse 1993

lugubris (Pers.) Krog, 

physodes (L.) Nyl.

subphysodes (Kremp.) Filson

Brusse 1989c

subphysodes var. austerodioides Elix = H. subphysodes

HYPOTRACHYNA (Vain.) Hale (1974)

colensoica Hale, Nash & Elix

Nash & Elix 1987

densirhizinata (Kurok.) Hale

Brusse 1988e

erythrodes (Zahlbr.) Hale

Brusse 1988e

evansii M.D.E. Knox

Knox 1982

fissicarpa (Kurok.) Hale

Swinscow & Krog 1988

habenula M.D.E. Knox

Knox 1982

heterochroa (Hale & Kurok.) Elix 

Nash & Elix 1987

imbricatula (Zahlbr.) Hale

Brusse 1988e

laevigata (Sm.) Hale

leeukopensis Elix

Elix 1999a

ligulata M.D.E. Knox

Knox 1982

neodissecta (Hale) Hale 

Nash & Elix 1987

orientalis (Hale) Hale 

Nash & Elix 1987

osseoalba (Vain.) Y.S. Park & Hale 

Nash & Elix 1987

pulvinata (Fée) Hale

revoluta (Flörke) Hale

scytophylla (Kurok.) Hale 

Nash & Elix 1987

sinuosa (Sm.) Hale

sublaevigata (Nyl.) Hale

subpustulifera Elix

Elix 1993, Elix 1999a

bahiana (Nyl.) Hale = H. heterochroa

degelii (Hale) Hale = Myelochroma degelii

formosana (Zahlbr.) Hale = H. osseoalba

ICMADOPHILA Trevis. (1852 )

ericetorum Zahlbr.

IMMERSARIA Rambold & Pietschm. (1989)

athroocarpa (Ach.) Rambold & Pietschm.

Brusse 1988b

IMSHAUGIA S.L.F. Mey. (1985)

aleurites (Ach.) S.L.F. Mey.

Brusse 1993

INGVARIELLA Guderley & Lumbsch (1997)

bispora (Bagl.) Guderley & Lumbsch

KAROOWIA Hale 1989

adhaerens (Nyl.) Hale = Xanthoparmelia adhaerens

adligans (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia adligans

arquata (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia arquata

diutina (Brusse) Elix = Xanthoparmelia diutina

ganymedea (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia ganymedea

insipida (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia insipida

leptoplaca (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia leptoplaca

lyrigera (Brusse) Elix = Xanthoparmelia lyrigera

microscopica Hale = Xanthoparmelia microscopica

perspersa (Stizenb.) Hale = Xanthoparmelia perspersa

protocetrarica Hale = Xanthoparmelia protocetrarica

ralla (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia ralla

salazinica Hale = Xanthoparmelia salazinica

saxeti (Stizenb.) Hale = Xanthoparmelia saxeti

scitula (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia scitula

spissa (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia spissa

squamatica (Brusse) Hale = Xanthoparmelia mucinea

subchalybaeizans Hale = Xanthoparmelia subchalybaeizans

supposita (Brusse) Elix = Xanthoparmelia supposita

KROSWIA P.M. Jørg. (2002)

crystallifera P. M. Jørg. Jørgen

Jørgensen 2002a, Jørgense

LASALLIA Mérat (1821)

capensis (Frey) Llano Frey 1

Frey 1949, Almborn 1987, Almborn 1988b

dilacerata (Frey) Llano Frey 1

Frey 1949, Almborn 1987

glauca (Stizenb.) Llano Almbo

Almborn 1987

membranacea (Laurer) Llano Almbo

Almborn 1987

papulosa (Ach.) Llano Almbo

Almborn 1974, Almborn 1987, Almborn 1988b, Swinscow & Krog 1988

pustulata (L.) Mérat Almbo

Almborn 1987, Swinscow & Krog 1988, Galloway 1995

papulosa var. rubiginosa (Pers.) Llano = L. pustulata

rubiginosa (Pers.) Llano = L. pustulata

LECANACTIS Eschw. (1824)

bullata Zahlbr.

develans Nyl.

emersa (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb.

ulcerata (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.

LECANIA A. Massal. (1853)

arenaria (Anzi) Flagey

cyrtella Th. Fr.

fructuosa (Stizenb.) Zahlbr.

LECANOGRAPHA Egea & Torrente)

lyncea (Sm.) Egea & Torrente

subcaesioides Egea & Torrente Egea

Egea & Torrente 1996

grumulosa (Dufour) Egea & Torrente = Paralecanographa grumosa

LECANORA Ach. (1809)


albella (Pers.) Ach.

albospersa Stizenb.

allophana Nyl.

aspera Stizenb.

atriformis Vain.

atrorimata Nyl.

atrosulphurea Ach.

bicincta Ramond

bogotana Nyl.

breuteliana A. Massal.

bylii Vain.

bylii Zahlbr. (Nom. Illegit.)

caesiopallens Vain.

caesiorubella Ach.

campestris (Schaer.) Hue

candidata Stizenb.

carneoflava Müll. Arg.

carpinea (L.) Vain.

chlarotera Nyl.

chondroplaca Zahlbr.

cinefacta Stizenb.

cruda Stizenb.

deminuta (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb.

diffusilis Nyl.

dispersa (Pers.) Röhl. 

elapheia Stizenb.

epibryon (Ach.) Ach. Brusse

Brusse 1988e

expallens Ach.

farinacea Fée

flexuosa Stizenb.

frustulosa Ach.

galactiniza Nyl.

glabrata (Ach.) Malme

helva Stizenb.

labiosa Stizenb.

leprosa Fée

leucoxantha Müll. Arg.

nidulans Stizenb.

nubila Stizenb.

obvirescens Stizenb.

oreinoides (Körb.) Hertel & Rambold

ostracoderma (Ach.) Ach.

polytypa Vain.

prosecha Ach

psaromela Nyl.

pseudistera Nyl. Zedda

Zedda & Rambold 2004

pulicaris (Pers.) Ach.

rehmannii Stizenb.

rupicola (L.) Zahlbr.

sylvestris (Nyl.) Stizenb.

thiocheila Stizenb.

transvaalensis Lumbsch Lumb

Lumbsch et al. 1995

varia (Hoffm.) Ach.

vincentina Nyl.

allophana var. glabrata (Ach.) J. Steiner = L. glabrata

atra (Huds.) Ach. = Tephromela atra

atrosulphurea f. leptococca Stizenb. = L. atrosulphurea

atrosulphurea f. livens Stizenb. = L. atrosulphurea

badia var. cinerascens Flot. = Protoparmelia badia

blanda Nyl. = L. farinacea

cancriformis (Hoffm.) Vain. = L. caesiorubella

cateileoides Vain. = Caloplaca cateileoides

chlarona f. pinastri Cromb. = L. pulicaris

cinerea (L.) Sommerf. = Aspicilia cinerea

coarctata (Turner) Ach. = Trapelia coarctata

coarctata f. cotaria Ach. = Trapelia coarctata

coarctata f. fulgiana Zahlbr. = Trapelia coarctata

coarctata var. fossulans Sizenb. = Trapelia coarctata

coilocarpa (Ach.) Nyl. = L. pulicaris

dispersa f. nana Vain. = L. dispersa

dispersa f. testacea Vain. = L. dispersa

flavovirens Fée = Vainionora flavovirens

homaloplaca Nyl. = Lecanora prosecha

leptoplaca Zahlbr. (nom illeg.) = Xanthoparmelia leptoplaca

pallida (Schreb. ) Rabenh. = L. albella

prosecha Ach. var. homaloplaca (Nyl.) Vain. = L. prosecha

rupicola var. bicincta (Ramond) Clauzade & Cl. Roux = L. bicincta

subdepressa Nyl. = Aspicilia subdepressa

subfusca (L.) Ach. = L. chlarotera

subfusca var. campestris (Schaer.) Raben. = L. campestris

subfusca var. subcrenulata Nyl. = L. chlarotera

subfusca var. subgranulata Nyl. = L. chlarotera

thaeodes (A. Massal.) Stizenb. = Acarospora thaeodes

LECIDEA Ach. (1803)

achristella Vain.

aeneola (Arnold) Vain. 

affinis G. Merr. (Nom inval. Art 38.1(a))

anteposita Nyl.

aporetica Stizenb.

bruguierae Vain.

buxea Stizenb.

caledonica Zahlbr.

capensis Zahlbr.

crassa (Nees) Stizenb.

cyanocentra Nyl.

decrustulata Vain.

elginensis Zahlbr.

erythrophaea Sommerf.

esuriens Zahlbr.

exigua Chaub.

fucina Stizenb.

fuscoatra Ach.

fuscotabulata Stizenb.

geina Stizenb.

glebaria Stizenb.

glencairnensis Zahlbr.

gouritzensis Vain.

griseofusciuscula Vain. ex Van der Byl

guamensis Vain.

hysbergensis Vain.

inscripta Stizenb.

insculpta Flot.

lactaria Stizenb.

lactens Stizenb.

langbaanensis Vain.

lapicida (Ach.) Ach. 

mutabilis Fée

natalensis Nyl.

obumbrata Nyl.

ochroplaca Zahlbr.

oligocheila Zahlbr.

opalina Stizenb.

orbiculata Stizenb.

owaniana Müll. Arg.

pallidonigra Ach.

paraspeirea Stizenb.

peltasta Stirt.

peltoloma Müll. Arg.

peltulidea Stirt.

phalerata Stizenb.

quartzina Stizenb.

remota Vain. ex van der Byl

rhynsdorpensis Zahlbr.

squamifera Stizenb.

stellans Stizenb.

stupparia Stizenb.

subalbicans Nyl.

subattingens G. Merr. ex van der Byl

subceresina Zahlbr.

subexigua Vain.

subexiguella Vain.

subinquinans Nyl.

sublucida Stizenb.

subcinerascens Nyl. (possibly L. lactea)

subsquamifera Zahlbr.

subrussula J. Steiner

sulfurosula Stizenb.

terrena Nyl.

theiochroa (Darb.) Hue

theiophoroides Vain. ex Lynge

tragorum Zahlbr.

trichiliae Zahlbr.

valida Stizenb.

vestita (Mont.) Nyl.

zeyheri A. Massal.

aeneola var. fuscoatra (Nyl.) Zahlbr= L. aeneola

albocoerulescens (Wulf.) Ach. = Porpidia albocoerulescens

albocoerulescens var. flavocoerulescens (Hornem.) Schaer. = Porpidia flavocoerulescens

angolensis Müll. Arg. = Lecanora oreinoides

cinnamomea Stizenb. = Lecidella stigmatea

crenata (Taylor) Stizenb. = Psora crenata

crenata var. coroniformis (Kremp.) Zahlbr. = Psora crenata

crenata var. speirea (Taylor) Zahlbr. = Psora crenata

crustulata Ach. = Porpidia crustulata

deceptoria Nyl. = Psora deceptoria

decipiens (Hedw.) Ach. = Psora decipiens

discolor Stizenb. = Buellia discolorans (nom illegit.)

dispersula Stizenb.( non Buellia disprsula Müll. Arg.) = Buellia stizenbergeri

elaeochroma f. flavicans (Ach.) Th. Fr. = Lecidella elaeochroma

elaeochroma f. geographica (Bagl.) Zahlbr. = Lecidella elaeochroma

elaeochroma var. hyalina (Mart.) Zahlbr. = Lecidella elaeochroma

epichromatica Zahlbr. = Lecidella epichromatica

exiguella Vain. = Rinodina exiguella

glomerulosa (DC.) Steud. = Lecidella euphorea

granifera Ach. = Malmidea granifera

granulosa (Hoffm.) Ach. = Trapeliopsis granulosa

grisella var. mosigii Zahlbr. = L. fuscoatra

howickensis Vain. = Poeltiaria howickensis

insculpta f. oxydata Flot. = L. insculpta

lapicida var. pantherina Ach. = L. lapicida

meiospora Nyl. = Porpidia crustulata