Thallus: medulla I+ violet.
Apothecia: epihymenium K+ violet
: K+ red (acicular crystals in section), C-, KC-, Pd+ yellow, UV-; norstictic acid by TLC.
Ecology and distribution. Widely distributed on siliceous rocks in the southern subpolar region (cool-temperate to subantarctic), except the NZ shelf islands, and scattered in the corresponding region in the northern hemisphere.
Notes. Characterized by its thallus containing norstictic acid and with an I+ medulla, and by its K+ purple epihymenium. Collections from the subantarctic usuually have innate apothecia with a carbonaceous exciple but are otherwise indistinguishable from typical forms.
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