Description (adapted from Krnefelt & Thell 1993).
Thallus fruticose, dichotomously to irregularly branched, forming small patches over open rock, 1-2 cm diam. Lobes rather short, caniculate, 0.5(-1) cm high, c. 0.5-1 mm broad, arising from rudimenatry squamulous basal portions, uppler surface pale brown to dark, lower surface black, both surfaces with numerous small wrinkles and ridges. Thallus in section c. 150-400 m thick, differentiated in unique anatomical layers. Cortex composed of 1-3 layers, c. 20-30 m thick, of strongly pigmented extremely large, rather uniform cells, c.10-15 m diam. Medulla composed of periclinally arranged, rather dense, strongly gelatinized hyphae, c. 7-9 m thick.
Apothecia sessile, up to 1.5 mm diam., with blackish disc and thalline margin, developed laminally on the upper surface of the lobes, sometimes assuming a terminal position on the lobes when mature. Thalline margin prominent. Esciple cupular, 2-layered, the upper layer composed of gelatinized hyphae, c. 50-60 m thick, the lower layer less gelatinized, paraplectenchymatous, c. 40-50 m thick. Hymenium c. 40-60 m high. Asci clavate c. 45 x 15 m, tholus with a broad, short ocular chamber and large axial body c. 4-5 m broad. Ascospores simple, ellipsoid, colourless, c. 8-9 x 5 m. Paraphyses septate, c. 1-2 m thick, thickened at tips. Conidiomata pycnidia, immersed in thallus. Conidia oblong, citriform, c. 8-10 x 1.5 µm.

Chemistry: thallus K, C, KC, P+ orange-red, UV; fumarprotocetraric acid by TLC.

Distribution and Ecology: Known only from the southern tip of South America and the Falkland Islands where it grows directly attached to rocks.

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Upper surface


Lower surface


Falkland Islands


Reaction with Pd


Distribution