Carbonea hypopurpurea Fryday
Lichenologist 44: 487. 2012

Description:
Thallus effuse, widespreading up to 5 cm across, with black prothallus when adjacent to other lichens; areolate, areoles c. 0.2–0.5 mm across; pale grey, flat to slightly convex, cortex absent but with thin ‘epinecral layer (c. 5 µm). Medulla I–. Photobiont chlorococcoid, cells 10–15 µm diam.
Apothecia frequent to scattered, lecideine, black, ±orbicular becoming angular, 0.4–0.6 mm diam., flat with an indistinct proper margin when young but soon becoming immarginate, margin ± white pruinose when emerging from thallus but soon concolorous with disc, 0.05 mm wide, disk rough. Thecium 60–70 µm tall, paraphyses unbranched, rarely with a short side branch, not anastomosing, non-septate, lax in K, c. 1.5 µm wide, slightly swollen to 3 µm at apex with upper 5–10 µm with blue-black pigment, epihymenium not granular, with blue-black pigment (N+ red:cinereorufa-green) often in clumps. Hypothecium brown, K+ purple. Asci ±cylindrical when young, becoming slightly clavate, Lecanora-type, 45–50 × 15–17 µm; ascospores hyaline, simple, oblong with rounded ends becoming slightly ellipsoid, (12–)15–17(–19) × 5–6(–7) µm. Exciple poorly developed, blue-black pigmented.
Conidiomata: not observed.
Chemistry: confluentic and 2’-O-methylperlatolic acids by tlc.

Distribution and Ecology: Carbonea hypopurpurea is currently known only from the mountains of West Falkland. The only assosiated species on the three collections are Pertusaria spegazzinii and Poeltidea perusta.

Comments: The holotype is densly covered with apothecia (Fig, 4A) but they are much more widely scattered in the two other collections. However, apothecial characteristics and thalline chemistry are identical and they are clearly referable to the same taxon.

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Thallus & Apothecia